Conditioned Compound Stimuli

The concurrent conditioning of more than one stimulus at a time has received a great deal of experimental attention. if two stimuli are paired simultaneously with a single US, both will share a portion of the acquired associative strength and predictive value. The amount of the portion acquired is determined by many factors. Certainly, a stimulus affected by conditioned or latent inhibition will get a lesser portion than a novel stimulus unaffected by such opposing conditioning. Some stimuli...

John Flukas E-mail

Many people deserve acknowledgment for their contributions, but none more so than the dog owners who have given me the privilege and responsibility of helping them to train their dogs or to assist them in resolving a behavior problem. I feel a special debt of gratitude to William Carr, Scott Line, and Victoria Voith. Dr. Carr graciously gave freely of his time to read and discuss the entire manuscript. His knowledge and expertise helped to clarify a number of important areas of relevant...

Instinctual Learning

The historical antagonism between ethology and behaviorism was based to a large extent on the relative importance each discipline placed on the role of learning in the development of behavior. This opposition was embodied in the careers and theoretical orientations of B. F. Skinner (1974) and Konrad Lorenz (1982). Skinner emphasized the importance of experimental analysis and learning as they occur under controlled laboratory conditions. Lorenz, on the other hand, downplayed the importance of...

Early Development and Reflexive Behavior

The ontogeny of a dog's social behavior unfolds according to a genetically programmed timetable (Scott and Fuller, 1965 Fox, 1971). These early developmental processes exercise an enduring influence over the behavioral adjustment of dogs. During a brief period from 3 to 16 weeks of age, an average puppy will probably learn more than during the remaining course of its lifetime, forming a lasting emotional and cognitive schemata of the social and physical environment. Furthermore, these early...

Aversive Control of Behavior

Negative Reinforcement and Avoidance Learning 290 Mowrer's Two-Process Theory of Avoidance Learning 292 A Cognitive Theory of Avoidance Learning 294 Safety Signal Hypothesis 295 Species-Specific Defensive Reactions and Avoidance Training 297 Punishment 298 P+ and P A Shared Emotional and Cognitive Substrate 305 Punishers, Rewards, and Verifiers 306 Using Time-out to Modify Behavior 309 Negative Practice, Negative Training, and Overcorrection (Positive Practice) Techniques 314 Remote-Activated...

Punishment

Punishment is an inescapable fact of life. From a behavioral perspective, punishment is everywhere, defining what will and will not occur without discomfort or disappointment. Taken together, the escape-avoidance of aver-sive events and the acquisition-maximization of rewarding ones form the yin and yang of behavior. Confucius discerned the importance of difficult trials in one's life The gem cannot be polished without friction, nor man perfected without trials. Similarly, Aristotle extolled...

Transfer of Learning

It is important that training readily transfer from one situation to another. Such transfer-ability should not be taken for granted, especially in cases involving complex skills and discriminations. Learned behavior tends to bond with the training context in which it is conditioned and may not readily move to other situations without additional work. The relative familiarity or novelty of the training context exercises an important influence on learning. New tasks are most easily learned under...

Remote Activated Electronic Collars

A device for delivering remote punishment that has considerable usefulness is the remote-activated electronic collar. Remote electronic stimulation provides a means for delivering a well-timed and measured aversive event. In many ways, it represents an ideal positive punisher, having many potential applications in dog training. In addition to intractable barking problems, dangerous habits such as chasing cars and bicyclists, various predatory behaviors, persistent recall problems, and...

Breed Variations

Among the various dog breeds, great variability can be seen regarding the ease with which they learn different tasks. The Border collie possesses a superb propensity for herding sheep an ability not available to nonherding breeds. No amount of training will turn a black-and-tan coonhound into an able sheep-herding dog, nor a Border collie into a steady trailing hound. Willis (1989) noted that the Border collie's ability to herd sheep not only depends on a genetic endowment (e.g., traits like...

R

Elicited by turning the neonate's head to one side The action causes an extension of the forelimbs and hind limbs on the side toward which the head is turned. Limbs on the opposite side tend to flex. Elicited by pinching the webbing of the hind foot The leg on the side pinched flexes while the opposite leg extends. The puppy is placed on a surface that is tilted up. The puppy reorients by twisting in the direction of the elevated side. The hand is cupped around the puppy's muzzle. Forward...

Arationwolf

Aration and the appearance of the hypothetical optimal period for secondary socialization at around 7 weeks of age. The separation reactivity of the 3- and 6-week-old puppies clearly peaked at this time (Fig. 2.8). There appears to be no direct link between the emotions of fear (e.g., startle) with separation anxiety (Davis et al., 1977). Also, Scott (1967) concludes, on the basis of studies involving chlorpromazine, that the tran-quilizer's effect on separation distress is the result of...

Neurotransmitters and Behavior

An important cellular function performed by neurons is the manufacture of chemical neu-rotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are produced in the cell body of specialized neurons by the endoplasmic reticulum, which is dispersed throughout most of the cytoplasm of the neuron. After manufacture, neurotrans-mitters are stored in vesicles produced by another cell structure called the Golgi apparatus. The vesicles containing the neurotransmitter are subsequently transported down the axon along...

Development of Behavior

Organization is inseparable from adaptation They are two complementary processes of a single mechanism, the first being the internal aspect of the cycle of which adaptation constitutes the external aspect. J. Plaget, The Origins of Intelligence in Children 1952 The Critical or Sensitive Period Hypothesis Early Development and Reflexive Behavior Neonatal Period Birth to 12 Days Transitional Period 12 to 21 Days Socialization Learning to Relate and Communicate Primary Socialization 3 to 5 Weeks...

Somatosensory System

The dog's body is equipped with a variety of receptors sensitive to stimuli impinging on the skin or arising from within the body itself. Specific receptors have evolved for the detection and measurement of pressure, vibration, heat and cold, chemicals, and vari ous noxious stimuli. In addition, internal receptors sensitive to joint location, muscle stretch, and tendon tension provide kines-thetic information about the relative location, direction, and action of the body. In combination, these...

Rehearsal and Staging

Successful modification of many behavior problems requires the use of rehearsal and staging techniques. Rehearsal involves having a dog master and repeatedly perform behavioral components needed for some later situation or remote context not present at the time of training. Although the situation or context itself may not be represented during rehearsal, each of the behaviors required can be independently shaped and ordered in the specific sequence needed. For instance, a socially overexuberant...

Prospects for the Future

Breeding carried out under the stewardship of responsible breeders has undoubtedly resulted in the genetic improvement of dogs in the dual directions of appearance and performance if not in health and biological fitness see below . Unfortunately, dogs bred by such breeders are registered on an equal basis with dogs bred indiscriminately by dilettantes and uncaring pet merchants. With the advent of large shopping centers, multibreed pet stores followed, carrying a variety of breeds for sale...

Info

Such dogs are prone to develop attachment-related problems involving separation distress evoked behaviors like excessive barking, compulsive destructive behavior, and psychogenic elimination problems. They are more likely to develop aggression problems toward other dogs as adults Pfaffenberger, 1963 . Dogs forming overly exclusive bonds with an owner may become suspicious or aggressive toward strangers, viewing them as a threat to their attachment. When not...

Timeout and Social Excesses

Many common behavior problems are driven by attention-seeking or playful competitive motivations. Using harsh physical punishment to control such behavior is questionable on a number of grounds but especially because punishing one behavior might simultaneously affect other closely related but desirable behaviors belonging to the same functional or motivational class. For instance, physically punishing a greeting excess e.g., jumping up will probably suppress the unwanted behavior however, such...

Preventing Behavior Problems

Much remains to be learned about the effects of early experience on adult behavior and the development of behavior problems. Growing statistical and anecdotal evidence suggests that very significant influences are at work. For example, a study by Jagoe see Serpell and Jagoe, 1995 has detected several significant associations between pediatric illness and later behavior problems, including a higher incidence of dominance-related aggression, aggression toward strangers, fear of strangers, fear of...

Canine Maladaptive Synonyms

Efficacy Expectations Outcome Expectations Efficacy Expectations Outcome Expectations Fig. 9.4. Efficacy and outcome expectations provide complementary influences on learning. contingencies between stimulus, response, and reinforcement are highly defined and reliable. Please note that henceforth the terms classical and instrumental are often replaced with the synonyms respondent and operant in order to improve readability, and with no other purpose intended. The foregoing discussion provides a...

Extinction of Instrumental Learning

Extinction is a procedure whereby a posi tively or negatively reinforced response is decreased in strength or frequency by discontinuing the contingency of reinforcement maintaining it. During the acquisition phase, dogs learn that reinforcement or its omission depends on what they do. Under the extinction phase, they learn that the desired or expected consequence is no longer available for the same response. This does not imply that extinction is the functional opposite of learning, nor is it...

Introduction

Before you can study an animal, you must first love it. Konrad Lorenz Fox, 1998 The dog has occupied an enduring place in our cultural heritage as an icon of in-terspecies cooperation and faithfulness. Speculation about the origins of this unique relationship continues to inspire lively debate and discussion, but nothing definitive can yet be said about the motivations guiding the first dog keepers to capture and tame wild or semidomesticated canids as companions and helpers. Even less can be...

Classical Conditioning

It is pretty evident that under natural conditions the normal animal must respond not only to stimuli which themselves bring immediate benefit or harm, but also to other physical or chemical agencies waves of sound, light, and the like which in themselves only signal the approach of these stimuli though it is not the sight and sound of the beast of prey which is in itself harmful to the smaller animal, but its teeth and claws. I. P. Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes 1927 1960 Basic Conditioning...

Types of Timeout

The TO is arranged so that the target behavior triggers the loss of social contact control or the withdrawal of positive reinforcement. The two general types of TO used to modify dog behavior are referred to as exclusionary and nonexclusionary Foxx, 1982 . TO often involves removing dogs from the training situation. The most common way to confine a dog for TO is to place the dog in a lighted bathroom or some other separate room. As the door is closed, the dog's leash is pinched in the doorjamb,...

Motivation Learning and Performance

A dog's performance is a direct reflection of its past history of reinforcement and its current motivational state or readiness to act. For positive reinforcement to be effective, a dog must be in a state of need that can be satisfied only after the dog behaves in a predetermined way. The most commonly employed reward in animal training is food. As a reward, food is effective only so long as dogs are either hungry or sufficiently interested in the food item being used. Utilizing a dog's hunger...

Using Timeout to Modify Behavior

Time-out TO is a useful tool for the management of a number of common behavior problems and excesses, especially those driven by strong affiliative motivations, such as at tention-seeking and competitive play. The effectiveness of TO depends on a number of procedural constraints timing, bridging, duration, repetition, provision of a reward-dense training situation, and immediate reinforcement of a suitable alternative behavior to replace the one being suppressed. Besides being effective, TO has...

Learning and the Septohippocampal System

The largest subcortical limbic structure is the hippocampal formation. The hippocampus appears to be involved in the processing of memory and, in collaboration with other limbic structures, various affective and cognitive functions. Damage to the hippocampus results in an animal's inability to store recent memory but does not interfere with memories already consolidated before damage occurred. The hippocampus in conjunction with the septum appears to play an important role in response...

Instrumental Learning

Now, whereas the gods have given to men the power of instructing one another in their duty by word of mouth, it is obvious that you can teach a horse nothing by word of mouth. If, however, you reward him when he behaves as you wish, and punish him when he is disobedient, he will best learn to do his duty. This rule can be stated in few words, but it applies to the whole art of horsemanship. Xenophon, On the Art of Horsemanship 1925 1984 Differences Between Classical and Instrumental...

Inheritance of Fear Krushinskii

Many studies have shown that emotional extremes involving fearfulness are inherited. Thorne 1944 , for example, found that a fear biting basset hound named Paula had a tremendous genetic influence on a large group of her descendants in terms of their relative fearfulness. Of 59 dogs related to this highly reproductive female, 43 73 were shy and unfriendly. Thorne concluded that shyness was the result of a dominant trait and, therefore, not responsive to modification through learning and...

Matching

The ability to choose between alternative courses of action is a behavioral imperative that enables an animal to adjust purposefully to the moment-to-moment demands presented by the environment. Choice behavior is influenced by the history of reinforcement produced by past choices made under similar conditions. The general pattern of choice-making is highly correlated or matched with the relative reinforcement value of the available alternatives presented to the animal from which to choose. An...

Neurobiology of Fear

The study of fear has made tremendous strides during the past decade. Several interacting and self-regulating circuits in the brain have been identified. The auditory-neural pathways involved in classical fear conditioning have been mapped by LeDoux and his coworkers at New York University LeDoux, 1996 . Since auditory fears e.g., brontopho-bia and other loud noises are common among dogs, it is appropriate to review these important findings in detail. Primary Neural Pathways Mediating the...

Genetic Predisposition and Temperament

Each individual human or animal is born with a definite tendency toward varying degrees of emotional reactivity in the direction of behavioral inhibition or excitability Gray, 1991 Kagan and Snidman, 1991 . The dog's general emotional reactivity or threshold to emotionally evocative stimulation is definitely a predisposing factor in the development of many common behavior problems. To a large extent, differences in emotional thresholds are affected by a limbic autonomic inheritance present at...

Prediction Control Expectancies and Adaptation

The central control of approach and escape-avoidance behaviors depends on various prediction-control expectancies and cost-benefit appraisals. Prediction and control expectancies share a common cognitive axis mediating reinforcement and punishment. Together, such expectancies guide all purposive behavior, including appetitive and escape-avoidance behavior. These various expectancies are either confirmed verified or disconfirmed. Disconfirmation of an instrumental expectancy results when the...

Cellular Composition of the Brain

In contrast to the simple radio receiver, the dog's brain is a profoundly complicated organ consisting of billions of neurons and interconnecting neural circuits. The neuron shares many of the same basic biological functions exhibited by other cells of the body. One notable exception to this generality is the neuron's inability to replicate. Shortly after birth, neurons stop dividing in the dog's brain and thereafter no new neurons are produced. Consequently, injuries to the brain involving...

Conclusion

The foregoing methods of analysis and behavior modification are crucial for effective problem solving and routine training efforts. Such methods provide the trainer behaviorist with a flexible and creative repertoire of alternatives to reactive force and punishment. Dogs trained with behavioral methods take to learning much more actively and exhibit a confidence and optimism that dogs trained with force alone never exhibit. The ideal outcome of behavior modification is the development of a...

Social Learning

The effect of others exercises a tremendous influence on the efficient acquisition of learned behaviors and their performance. A dog's social dependency makes it keenly aware of the behavior of others. This perceptual tendency or bias to attend to the behavior of conspecifics and non-conspecific others like ourselves provides a vital cognitive interface for coordinating social interaction, regulating purposeful group activities important for survival e.g., hunting and maintenance of the group...

Spontaneous Recovery and Other Sources of Relapse

Extinction is subject to savings, that is, influences from previous learning that persist and interfere with the permanent uncoupling of the associative link between the CS and US Kehoe and Macrae, 1997 . Despite many previous extinction trials, the CS may spontaneously recover and elicit the previously extinguished CR. In practice, the extinction process serves only to reduce the future occurrence of the CR, not eliminate it. The persistence of classically conditioned behavior is particularly...

Differences Between Classical and Instrumental Conditioning

The dog's ability to learn as the result of experience is a key factor ensuring its adaptive success. in addition to the associative, information-producing functions provided by classical conditioning, dogs also depend on various instrumental or operant means to secure control over the social and physical environment. Through the combined efficacy of classical and instrumental learning processes, dogs can reliably predict and control the occurrence of biologically significant events. Classical...

T I I I I I I I I

.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 p reinforcer no response Fig. 7.2. Diagram showing various general contingency relations between the reinforcer and the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the instrumental response. After Seligman et al. 1971 . forcer-response contingency. Figure 7.2 illustrates various contingency relations between the reinforcer and response, ranging from a situation in which the reinforcer is certain to follow the response each time it occurs continuous reinforcement , to...

Common Examples of Classical Conditioning

A few everyday examples of classical conditioning will hopefully serve to illustrate how the process works. Most dogs respond readily to the sound of a doorbell ringing. For the first few times, however, the bell would probably produce little effect in a dog other than an orienting response and some curiosity. After several repetitions, though, in which the bell signals the arrival of someone at the door, the dog may begin to respond to the bell in anticipation of meeting the visitor at the...

Behavioral Contrast and Momentum

Behavioral contrast matching and momentum exercise powerful indirect influences on the overall effects of training, its transfer, and degree of permanence Chance, 1998 Nevin, 1998 . Behavioral contrast refers to the tendency of a target behavior undergoing reinforcement in one situation to occur less often in other situations where reinforcement is less likely to occur. Conversely, in comparison to baseline levels present prior to the onset of training, a behavior undergoing punishment in one...

Vision

Much of the close social exchange that occurs between dogs and people depends on the vi sual recognition of subtle gestures and postural signals. This visual information provides a sensory foundation for socially significant communication and harmonious interaction. Another important function of sight is to scan the environment for biologically important changes in the dog's surroundings not detected by the other senses. The dog's eye is structured so that reflected light energy can be...

Origins and Domestication

For thousands of years man has been virtually, though unconsciously, performing what evolutionists may regard as a gigantic experiment upon the potency of individual experience accumulated by heredity and now there stands before us this most wonderful monument of his labours the culmination of his experiment in the transformed psychology of the dog. George Romanes, Animal Intelligence 1888 Domestication Processes and Definitions Interspecific Cooperation Mutualism Terms and Definitions Wild,...

Habituation and Sensitization

Habituation is a nonassociative learning phenomenon that is often confused with extinction. Extinction results when the CS fails to predict the occurrence of the associated US, that is, the CS no longer elicits the CR. In contrast, habituation occurs when the US is repeatedly presented until the associated UR is no longer elicited. For instance, the occurrence of a strange loud noise will evoke a vig orous orienting response from most dogs. However, if the noise is repeated many times, dogs may...

Brief Critique of Traditional Learning Theory

The principles of learning theory have been derived from the experimental study of behavior. This research has been based on a small set of empirical assumptions and beliefs. Perhaps the most central and pervasive of them is the law of effect, that is, behavior is modified by its consequences. If a behavior is rendered more likely to occur in the future as the result of its consequences, it is said to have undergone reinforcement. Reinforcement is divided into two categories depending on...

Paedomorphosis

Many of the changes occurring as a result of domestication appear to involve the prolongation of puppylike or juvenile characteristics into adulthood. The overall outcome is a neotenization of the wild prototype a process in which maturity is developmentally delayed and growth rates altered Fox, 1967 . In many ways, an adult dog behaves and looks like a juvenile wolf. All of these characteristics soft coat, curled tail, skinfolds, floppy ears, and short legs give the domestic dog a puppylike...

Dogs Selective Association Food Psychology

Frustration, persistence, and regression. In HD Kimmel Ed , Experimental Psychopathology Recent Research and Theory. New York Academic. Aristotle 1985 . Nicomachean Ethics, T Irwin Trans . Indianapolis, IN Hackett. Azrin NH and Holz WC 1966 . Punishment. In WK Honig Ed , Operant Behavior Areas of Research and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall. Azrin NH, Hutchinson RR, and Kake DF 1967 . Attack, avoidance, and escape reactions to aver-sive shock. J Exp Anal Behav, 10...

Olfaction

The dog's sense of smell has attracted a great deal of enthusiastic attention from both applied and scientific quarters but has only slowly received appropriate experimental study. Historically, almost supernatural capabilities were attributed to a dog's nose, often resulting in the promulgation of some rather fantastic and insupportable claims about canine olfactory abilities. In addition, many equally incredible theories have been posited regarding the way in which a dog's olfactory apparatus...

Archeological Record

Despite the difficulties, discovering when and how this enduring relationship first appeared are questions of tremendous scientific interest and importance. Authorities differ with respect to the exact historical moment or time frame, but many prehistoric sites show that a close association between humans and dogs has existed continuously for many thousands of years. Although a loose symbiotic mutualism probably existed long beforehand, the earliest archeological evidence of a true domestic dog...

Canis L Upis

European Toy Dogs Herding Dogs Terriers . European Toy Dogs Great Dane St. Bernard Newfoundland Bulldog Borzoi Saluki Afghan Deer Hounds Dingo Pariah Dogs Fig. 1.3. Various subspecies of the wolf are believed to have contributed to the genome of the domestic dog. According to one theory, the dog was independently domesticated in various parts of the world, with no single site of origin. Although grouped as though from discrete origins, the breeds included here have...

Audition

The dog's ear is composed of an outer ear pinna , auditory canal, and various structures designed to convert sound waves into auditory information. The pinna gathers and directs sound into the auditory canal, where it is carried to the tympanic membrane or eardrum. The eardrum is an extremely sensitive and elastic membrane reacting to the slightest vibrations on its surface movement of less than one-tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom can produce an audible sensation Thompson, 1993 . The...

Predictable

Problematical or insolvable conflict occurs in one of two general ways 1 when events are highly predictable but not adequately under the animal's control when they happen to occur P C , or 2 when the animal has a high degree of control over the event but cannot predict when it is going to happen P C . When respondent and operant events are either both unpredictable and uncontrollable P C or highly predictable and controllable P C , the result is helplessness, on the one hand, and...

Misuse and Abuse of Punishment

Punishment and other forms of aversive control e.g., aversive counterconditioning and negative reinforcement can be humane and effective behavioral tools in the hands of competent trainers, but noncontingent after the event punishment and excessive physical punishment or brutalization e.g., beating, hanging, or kicking have no legitimate place in the armamentarium of professional trainers. That such methods exist today and are employed in the name of dog training is a blemish on the profession....

Learning to Adjust and Control

The foregoing discussion has emphasized the role of early socialization and attachment in the ontogeny of puppies. Puppies that fail to receive sufficient contact during the critical period of socialization may exhibit lasting deficits in their social responsiveness and general trainability. To gain the most benefit from the least effort and investment of time, it has been demonstrated that timing is of vital importance. In fact, it has been estimated that as little as 20 minutes of social...

Classical Conditioning and Fear

Voluntary Versus Involuntary Behavior Behavior can be roughly divided into two broad categories voluntary goal directed and involuntary reflexive . This division is not arbitrary but is based on the two fundamental ways behavior is modified. Voluntary behavior is highly goal directed and influenced by the consequences it produces. involuntary behavior, on the other hand, is largely composed of automatic mechanisms operating outside of a dog's volition and ability to choose. in the case of...

Learning to Compete and Cope

With the close of the socialization period, dogs enter into a long period of juvenile development and progressive independence. The remainder of the chapter addresses the emergence of a number of prominent onto-genetic changes presaging adult social behavior and environmental adjustment. The developments between weeks 1 2 and 21 are associated with the integration of all major behavioral functional systems, maturing sensory abilities, and learning Fig. 2.7 . A dog's tendency to form lasting...

Gantt Schizokinesis Autokinesis and Effect of Person

Horsley Gantt 1944 viewed Pavlov's discovery of experimental neurosis as a useful animal model for understanding human psy-chopathology. As a result, he performed a series of longitudinal studies of experimentally induced neurosis in dogs. One of the dogs he studied Nick was observed for over 1 2 years. His methods for inducing neurosis were similar to those used in Pavlov's laboratory. In addition, he studied the effect of strong emotional stimuli on conditioned behavior and the development...

Learning and Behavioral Disturbances

One can conceive in all likelihood that, if these dogs which became ill could look back and tell what they had experienced on that occasion, they would not add a single thing to that which one would conjecture about their condition. All would declare that on every one of the occasions mentioned they were put through a difficult test, a hard situation. Some would report that they felt frequently unable to refrain from doing that which was forbidden and then they felt punished for doing it in one...

Generalization and Discrimination

An important property of the CS and CR is known as generalization. Stimulus generalization and response generalization provide the Fig. 6.12. Diagram of second-order conditioning. CS, conditioned stimulus US, unconditioned stimulus. means whereby information derived from one situation is made useful in others that are not exactly the same. Under natural conditions, animals are rarely exposed to identical stimulus events or situations thus, the ability to generalize is a vital adaptation. Dogs...

Tolmans Expectancy Theory

Tolman 1934 adhered to many of the fundamental tenets of behaviorism but also introduced several new perspectives into the study of behavior and learning some of which were highly controversial and inconsistent with the behaviorist platform. Tolman viewed the study of behavior both as an experimental process fact finding, hypothesizing, and falsifying but also emphasized an interpretative component that evaluated the meaning or purposiveness of the behavior being studied. Most...

Neurobiology of Aggression Hypothalamus

Many studies have demonstrated that the hypothalamus plays an important role in the expression of aggression. Two broad categories of aggressive behavior have been observed in the laboratory during intracranial stimulation 1 quiet attack predatory behavior and 2 affective aggression defensive and offensive displays Fig. 3.7 . Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus results in the evocation of various predatory displays, including stalking, pouncing, and biting sequences. Quiet attack...

The Dingo A Prototypical

An excellent source of ethnographic evidence outlining the general course of early domestication can be found in the enduring relationship between the Aborigines of Australia and dingoes. This symbiotic dyad provides a valuable anthropological picture of what life between primitive humans and early canids may have been like during the earliest incipient stages of domestication. In most details, dingoes differ only slightly from Asian wolves Canis lupuspallipes , except for modest behavioral and...

CS

Matrix showing the four basic types of classical conditioning. CS, conditioned stimulus. Fig. 6.8. Matrix showing the four basic types of classical conditioning. CS, conditioned stimulus. takes place, the clicker which had not been previously paired with the US spontaneously acquires associative strength derived through its previous presentation with the word cue Good. This phenomenon readily occurs even in cases where the delay between the two preconditioning stimuli is as long as 4...

Neurobiology of Attachment and Separation Distress

MacLean 1985 has proposed that the neural substrates mediating separation distress, maternal care, and play belong to the same paleomammalian portion of the limbic system. According to his theory, these social behavior tendencies are all elaborated within the cingulate cortex and related neural structures. He has argued that the separation call or distress vocalization is the mammal's earliest and most basic vocalization pattern. More primitive forms of animal life e.g., reptiles lacking a...

Behavioral Effects of Domestication

Although dogs share a great many behavioral characteristics with wolves, the former have undergone a tremendous transformation in the direction of enhanced docility and affectionate dependency as well as many other behavioral changes Table 1.2 . Price has argued that these changes are probably not due to a permanent loss of behavior, but rather reflect quantitative alterations lowering or raising of response thresholds mediating the expression of species-typical behavior With respect to...

The Critical or Sensitive Period Hypothesis

During development and growth, dogs undergo a process of progressive biological organization and simultaneous behavioral differentiation. This ontogenesis is marked by several more or less distinct sensitive or critical periods for the development of various psychosocial functions. The onset and offset of these stages of development are biologically defined, making the animal susceptible to the crucial experience or its absence for a limited period. Within these sensitive stages, a short...

Conflict and Neurosis

The experimental study and description of conflict was an important area of research for Neal E. Miller. Conflict occurs when incompatible responses compete simultaneously for expression, resulting in varying degrees of behavioral disturbance Conflicts can distract, delay, and fatigue the individual and force him to make maladaptive compromise responses. in fact, clinical studies demonstrate that severe conflict is one of the crucial factors in functional disorders of personality Miller, 1971 3...

Biological and Dispositional Constraints on Learning

At every moment an animal's sense organs are being bombarded by physical energy in many forms. To this chiaroscuro it responds selectively. The selectivity in its responsiveness must influence what it can learn. R. A. Hinde and J. Stevenson-Hinde Constraints on Learning 1973 Instincts, Fixed Action Patterns, and Functional Systems Instinctual Learning Dancing Bees Digging Wasps Preparedness and Selective Association Sensory Preparedness Cognitive Preparedness Prepared Connections Taste Aversion...

Reflexive Organization

Much of a dog's behavior is under the reflexive control of involuntary mechanisms. As discussed in Chapter 2, neonatal puppies exhibit a great variety of reflexes that are predominately geared to maintaining contact with the mother to secure basic survival needs. These early neonatal reflexes gradually disappear and are replaced by more centrally controlled behaviors as puppies mature. Neonatal reflexive behavior has been carefully studied and cataloged Fox, 1964 . Understanding how the body's...

How to Use Timeout Bridging

The effective use of TO requires that the behavior modifier adhere closely to several procedural constraints. Foremost among these considerations is the need for the TO to be well timed and bridged with the occurrence of the unwanted behavior. For TO to be effective, a direct connection must be established and maintained between the occurrence of the target behavior and the TO consequence. This is accomplished by immediately following the unwanted behavior with a conditioned punisher e.g.,...

Nature Versus Nurture

The relative importance of biology nature versus experience nurture for the organization of behavior is the central issue fueling the nature-nurture controversy. This circular and somewhat self-serving dispute is maintained, on the one hand, by proponents of nature often ethologists , who emphasize the importance of evolution and phylogenesis. On the other hand, proponents of nurture usually behaviorists underscore the ultimate importance of experience and learning. Obviously, both sides of the...

Higher Order Classes of Behavior

The simple instrumental paradigm of learning discussed above is frequently insufficient in terms of explanatory value and practical control when applied to complex naturalistic situations. Estes drew attention to the important role of higher-order routines and classes of behavior in an effort to account for such problems with reinforcement theory. He notes that the frequency with which animals and men in nonlaboratory situations repeat punished acts and fail to repeat rewarded ones is so great...

Training and Stimulus Control

An important aspect of dog training involves bringing learned behavior under the control of cues and commands or what learning theorists call discriminative stimuli. Essentially, stimulus control refers to a process whereby a learned response is rendered more probable in the presence of some arbitrary stimulus. For example, once a dog has learned that some instrumental response is regularly associated with a specific outcome, the response-outcome relationship can be readily associated with a...

Frustration and Neurosis The Theories of Maier and Amsel

Maier's Frustrative Theory of Abnormal Fixations and Compulsions Masserman viewed the causes of neurosis from the perspective of conflict or the evocation of pathological fear and anxiety. He did not examine explicitly the implicit role of frustration. Norman R. F. Maier 1961 performed a series of experiments with rats to explore the effect of frustration on the development of neurotic behavior. Simply stated, Maier's studies involved training rats to perform a visual discrimination between two...

Abusive Punishment The Need for Universal Condemnation

The use of corporal punishment to control dog behavior is very problematical and should be avoided. Not only are such methods dangerous for inexperienced owners to employ, they are probably ineffective certainly in the sense of lasting and generalized behavioral control and are fraught with potentially serious side effects. Physical punishment of aggressive behavior can easily result in an escalation of aggression or produce a more severe and difficult problem to control. For example, although...

Extrasensory Perception

Do dogs possess a sixth sense Many authors writing to a popular audience, among them trainers, veterinarians, and behavioral consultants, have suggested that dogs may use information derived from sources other than the normal senses Fox, 1972, 1981 Wood-house, 1982 Vine, 1983 Campbell, 1986 . These beliefs have been reinforced in the public's mind by animal psychics claiming to communicate with dogs telepathically and to perform extraordinary feats, ranging from locating lost pets both dead and...

Terms and Definitions Wild Domestic and Feral

Reports following a recent fatal wolf-dog attack exemplify some of the confused ways in which terms like domestic, wild, and tame are used. The victim, a 39-year-old mother of two, was mauled and killed as her children looked on near their Colorado home. Several authorities were asked to comment on the unusual attack. It was the first documented case in which a wolf hybrid had killed an adult person. A police detective investigating the incident said, They wolf hybrids may be domesticated, but...

Higher Order Conditioning

Higher Order Conditioning

Once a CS has been established, it can be used to condition other stimuli to elicit the CR. This is accomplished by pairing the new stimulus with the CS but omitting the presentation of the US Fig. 6.12 . The previously conditioned stimulus takes the place of the US in this arrangement. In comparison to the associative strength acquired through Fig. 6.10. The absence of conditioning in the case of the light stimulus CS1 suggests that the tone CS2 has a greater salience and overshadows the light...

Liddell The Cornell Experiments

Liddell 1954, 1956 studied experimental neurosis in farm animals, especially sheep and goats. Liddell's experiments involved exposing these animals to repeated simple and difficult discrimination tasks involving various stimuli and mild shocks while they were restrained in a Pavlovian frame and harness. The level of shock used by Liddell was very weak barely perceptible to a finger moistened with salt water but sufficient to elicit a vigorous unconditioned withdrawal response in the...

Neonatal Period Birth to Days

Just before birth, hormonal changes occur that cause puppies to undergo sexual dimorphism. Male puppies are exposed to a surge of testosterone, forming the foundation for malelike behavior later in life. Prenatal androgen secretions are believed to play a role in the formation of hardwired neural tracts associated with maleness. Some evidence suggests that female puppies may be affected by this androgenizing effect as well Knol and Eg-berink-Alink, 1989 . Female mice embryos located between...

Gustation

The ability to taste depends on the activation of gustatory receptor cells concentrated in the taste buds. The taste buds are found in various papillae foliate, fungiform, and circum-vallate to name the most common that are distributed over the surface of the dog's tongue. Taste buds contained in the fungi-form papillae are located on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and transmit gustatory information via the chorda tympani, a branch of the facial nerve seventh cranial nerve . The...

Cerebral Cortex

The cortex, which is the outermost and latest development in the evolution of the vertebrate brain, is believed to be the central site of consciousness and intelligence, performing the most complex associative and mnemonic functions. The gray matter the fissured and convoluted outer surface is largely composed of neuron cell bodies stacked approximately 3 mm thick. Underlying the cortex is a white medullary structure composed of myelinated axonal fibers that communicate with different parts of...

Fear and Pain

The most common source of fear is related to the experience of pain. Most dogs show a very strong fearful response toward pain, and the fear of pain is commonly used to study how fear is learned and affects behavior. The power of pain to evoke fear and facilitate fear-related learning is so highly prepared that it is often treated as though fear is simply a conditioned response to stimuli that predict pain. However, the threat of pain is only one of many potential elicitors of fear other...

Transitional Period to Days

The transitional period is marked by progressive neurological development with steady improvement in locomotor ability, the appearance of additional sensory modalities including the opening of the eyes and ear canals , and the development of greater central control over voluntary behavior Fig. 2.3 . The righting and visual cliff reflexes appear during this period, but they are not consistent until approximately 28 days of age Fox, 1971 . Throughout this period, the behavior of puppies becomes...

The Silver Fox A Possible Model of Domestication

Fox Licking Human

The process of behavioral and physical pae-domorphosis has been observed experimentally in the selective breeding of silver foxes carried out by the Russian geneticist D. K. Belyaev and his associates at the institute of Cytology and Genetics in Siberia Trut, 1999 . Belyaev 1979 speculated that the dog's early domestication proceeded unconsciously by selecting and breeding captive animals that exhibited a high tolerance for fear and a minimal tendency to behave aggressively toward humans. To...

Schedules of Positive Reinforcement

One of the most important contributions of B. F. Skinner to training theory was the elucidation of various reinforcement schedules and their differential impact on the performance of learned behavior Ferster and Skinner, 1957 . In dog training, reinforcement is provided according to various plans and schemes depending on the specific requirements of the training objective. During the early stages of training, a new behavior is reinforced every time it occurs. The new behavior is acquired on a...

Effects of Domestication

Wolf Postures

Although it is doubtful that early humans consciously deliberated upon the reproductive activities of their captive dogs, there certainly existed many unconscious selection pressures. Dogs of special interest or usefulness were probably more carefully managed, fed, and protected than others, thereby enhancing their chances of survival and reproduction. Darwin 1859 1962 reported striking evidence revealing the high regard and protection that dogs enjoyed in some tribal cultures. In support of...

Stimulus Factors Affecting Conditioned Stimulus Acquisition and Maintenance

External Inhibition and Disinhibition Even after a CS has been well established, it may undergo further potentiation or attenuation under the influence of various internal and external events impinging on the central mechanisms controlling it. Both excitatory and inhibitory conditioned stimuli are subject to such change. Dramatic examples of external inhibition and disinhibition can be observed among dogs fearful of loud noises or subject to separation distress when left alone. During...

Safety Signal Hypothesis

Another theoretical account of avoidance learning that has many adherents is the safety signal hypothesis. The aforementioned experiment by Rescorla and LoLordo 1965 is frequently referred to in support of this theory. Recall that as a result of the differential conditioning of CS1 correlated with shock and CS2 correlated with the absence of shock , the rate of jumping over the barrier was increased in the presence of the stimulus previously associated with shock CS1 and depressed in the...

Domestication Processes and Definitions

Natufian Burial

Robert Wayne and his associates at UCLA have performed a molecular genetic analysis of the evolution of dogs and wolves, suggest- Fig. 1.1. A Natufian burial site at Ein Mallaha in northern Israel shows a human skeleton in what appears to be an eternal embrace with the skeletal remains of a puppy located in the upper right-hand corner. From Davis and Valla 1978 , reprinted with permission. Fig. 1.1. A Natufian burial site at Ein Mallaha in northern Israel shows a human skeleton in what appears...

Hope Disappointment and Other Emotions Associated with Learning

Training events produce various expectancies and presumptive states of emotional arousal, ranging from frustration and disappointment to relief and hope Fig. 7.3 . In addition, anger, fear, and anxiety are commonly associated with aversive training techniques see Chapter 8 . As the foregoing examples illustrate, continuous reinforcement schedules tend to generate expectancies based on some degree of certainty elation , whereas intermittent reinforcement schedules tend to generate expectancies...

References

Nat Hist, 12 4-8. Beck AM 1973 . The Ecology of Stray Dogs A Study of Free-Ranging Urban Animals. Baltimore York. Bekoff M 1977 Social communication in canids Evidence for the evolution of a stereotyped mammalian display. Science, 197 1097-1099. Belyaev DK 1979 . Destabilizing selection as a factor in domestication. JHered, 70 301-308. Boitani L, Francisci F, and Ciucci P 1996 . Population biology and ecology of feral dogs in central Italy. In J Serpell Ed ,...

Patterns and Functional Systems

The experimental study of animal behavior has produced great strides in our understanding of how animals learn. Unfortunately, however, the majority of this research has been confined to a narrow range of animal species especially pigeons and rats and limited to an arbitrary set of behaviors e.g., maze learning, key pecking, lever pressing, and various other simple behaviors . Although the scientific productivity of such concentration is undeniable, over the years it has become increasingly...

General Guidelines for the Use of Punishment

Punishment and other aversive training techniques are complex and require careful assessment and implementation. The following is offered as a general, but by no means exhaustive, set of guidelines for the effective use of punishment. 1. Punishment should be used only after other positive training options have been carefully considered or exhausted. 2. The trainer should never punish out of anger or frustration. Punishment should be used as a constructive training option, not as a means to vent...

Differential Reinforcement

There exist many ways to reduce the occurrence of unwanted behavior besides punishment and extinction. Perhaps the best initial approach to decrease unwanted behavior is to reinforce some competing alternative behavior differentially while simultaneously simply ignoring the unwanted one Skinner, 1953 Kazdin, 1989 . There are three basic schedules of differential reinforcement 1 differential reinforcement of other behavior DRO , 2 differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior DRI , and 3...

Sensory Abilities

Each animal has its own Merkwelt perceptual world and this world differs from its environment as we perceive it, that is to say, from our own Merkwelt. Niko Tinbergen, The Study of Instinct 1951 1969 Retina Color Vision Vision in Subdued Light Binocular Vision and Depth Perception Shape and Form Discrimination Blindness Audition Frequency Range of Hearing Auditory Localization Ultrasound and Training Deafness Olfaction Mechanics of Smell Olfactory Transduction Olfactory Acuity Biological and...

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Dogs, like children in our society, are exposed to a high risk of trauma and abusive treatment, predisposing both victims to develop various debilitating behavioral and psychological symptoms. it has been estimated that some 3 million children are annually exposed to significant trauma caused by domestic abuse or violence. Perhaps as many as one-third of these children will eventually require mental health interventions of some form or another as a result of these early experiences Schwarz and...

Neurobiology of Behavior and Learning

The possibility of understanding the central neural substrates that govern behavior is exciting not only because it deepens our understanding of humans and of all animal life, but also because it holds the promise that we may someday be able to correct imbalances in behavioral functions or restore functions lost by disease. Neurons Glial Cells Hindbrain and Midbrain Structures Cerebellum Reticular Formation Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Limbic System Acetylcholine Glutamate and GABA...

Biological Evidence

Domestic dogs interbreed with three wild canid species coyotes, jackals, and wolves. Charles Darwin 1875 1988 discusses at length in The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication that the variability and diversity of the dog could only be adequately explained by postulating an admixture of several wild species represented in the canine genome. Following in the tradition of Darwin, Konrad Lorenz 1954 also argued that domestic dogs owe their genetic endowment to a combination of canid...

Origins of Selective Breeding

According to Clutton-Brock 1984 , the Romans were the first to breed dogs systematically on a large scale and to keep detailed records about the various breeds they kept. The Romans knew that selective breeding could affect physical appearance and behavior. By this time, all of the major breed types were well established e.g., guard, hunting, coursing, shepherd, and lap dogs and it was recognized that training was needed to properly fit form to function. The Greeks had also applied themselves...