Aversive Control of Behavior

As we know, however, the dog does not spontaneously perform all the services we require of him. We are often asked whether we should train a dog by kindness or compulsion. A kind heart is certainly an advantage to a trainer, but this alone will not induce the dog to perform reliable service, nor will treatment by those who are inclined and who constantly see "sullen resistance" on the part of the dog and inflict "punishment" accordingly. Good training needs a kind heart as well as a cool and well-informed head for the proper direction of the indispensable compulsion.

Konrad Most, Training Dogs (1910/1955)

Fear and Pain

Negative Reinforcement and Avoidance Learning

Mowrer's Two-Process Theory of Avoidance Learning A Cognitive Theory of Avoidance

Learning Safety Signal Hypothesis Species-Specific Defensive Reactions and

Avoidance Training Punishment Definition

Critics of Punishment Does Punishment Work? Punishment and "Neurosis" Positive Side Effects Coercive Compulsion and Conflict P+ and P : A Shared Emotional and Cognitive Substrate? Punishers, Rewards, and Verifiers Direct and Remote Punishment Using Time-out to Modify Behavior Loss of Social Contact Loss of Social Control Loss of Positive Reinforcement How to Use Time-out

Bridging

Repetition Duration

Time-in Positive Reinforcement Positive and Negative Feedback Types of Time-out

Exclusionary Time-out Nonexclusionary Time-out

Time-out and Social Excesses Negative Practice, Negative Training, and Overcorrection (Positive Practice) Techniques Remote-Activated Electronic Collars Misuse and Abuse of Punishment

Noncontingent Punishment

"Spite" and Pseudoguilt

The Persistent Belief that Noncontingent

Punishment Works Interpreting Pseudoguilt Negative Side Effects of Noncontingent

Punishment The Need for Close Temporal Contiguity Hitting and Slapping: Okay? Abusive Punishment: The Need for Universal Condemnation General Guidelines for the Use of Punishment References

THe AveRSIve control of behavior plays an important role in dog training and behavior modification. in many training situations and applications, aversive techniques are not only necessary but sometimes even preferable to the various positive reinforcement procedures discussed in the previous chapter. Unfortunately, aversive training methods are often inadequately understood or applied in cases where positive methods would suffice. Although avoidance learning and punishment appear simple on the surface, as one probes the processes involved, it quickly becomes evident that they are far from simple.

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