Stimulus-response associations established through classical conditioning can be weakened by a process called extinction. If the occurrence of a CS is not regularly followed by the presentation of the reinforcing US, the associative bond between the CS and US will deteriorate. After many such nonreinforced trials, the CS will fail to elicit the CR—that is, the CS has been extinguished. For example, saying "Good" without occasionally following it with an actual reward will result in its extinction—that is, the dog will learn to ignore the bridging stimulus. Remember that the CS serves to predict future events. Whenever the CS fails to predict the accustomed US, it will begin to forecast the opposite— the absence of the US. In the case of the reprimand, habitual failure to follow the reprimand cue with an actual punitive event may inadvertently teach a dog to interpret the reprimand as a safety signal—a very undesirable outcome. Unfortunately, the typical learning experience of many dogs is one in which they are exposed to a stream of nonreinforced presentations of significant cues (essentially empty warnings and bribes) occurring independently of actual outcomes.
Was this article helpful?
Understanding the ingredients of your dog's food items is a must for the dog lovers or dog owners. Whenever you feed the dog with different kinds of food items, you should always read the label and understand the contents about the dog feed types that are being used in such commercial preparations. You should understand the ingredients while buying food for your dog and also know what to look for.