W. Horsley Gantt (1944) viewed Pavlov's discovery of experimental neurosis as a useful animal model for understanding human psy-chopathology. As a result, he performed a series of longitudinal studies of experimentally induced neurosis in dogs. One of the dogs he studied—Nick—was observed for over 1 2 years. His methods for inducing neurosis were similar to those used in Pavlov's laboratory. In addition, he studied the effect of strong emotional stimuli on conditioned behavior and the development of postcondi-tioning neurotic sequelae—results that appear to parallel post-traumatic stress disorder (see below). These procedures included presenting intense and startling stimuli (e.g., setting off a loud explosion while the dog was restrained in the experimental harness), social restriction, fighting (both accidental and provoked), and sexual stimulation (a female in estrus was brought into the experimental chamber while conditioning was taking place). Some of the neurotic symptoms observed included anorexia, disorganized behavior, restlessness, abnormal breathing and heart rate patterns, fearfulness (especially toward persons associated with the experiments), elimination disturbances, and abnormal sexual excitement.
Gantt's work has been sharply criticized (Broadhurst, 1961). Although his experimental method may be wanting in scientific rigor and his data inconclusive, his work is nonetheless thought provoking and deserving of careful study. Gantt's general findings can be grouped into three basic categories: schizokinesis, autokinesis, and the effect of person.
Gantt has argued that classical conditioning occurs on more than one level at a time, with some conditioning (especially involving fear)
Fig. 9.2. Matrix of temperament types and traits associated with introversion and extraversion. After Pavlov and Eysenck (see Gray, 1971).
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