and keeping in contact with the mother (Table 2.1). Among these sensory capacities are sensitivities to pressure, movement, taste, and smell. Withdrawal from painful stimulation can be seen shortly after birth. Some forms of neonatal learning have been observed in the laboratory. For instance, Fox (1971) found that if the breasts of a nursing mother are coated with anise oil during the first 5 days of feeding, the exposed puppies subsequently exhibit an orienting response to a Q-tip soaked in the oil. On the other hand, puppies not previously exposed to the smell of anise oil on their mother's breasts exhibited a strong withdrawal response from it when similarly tested. This experiment indicates that some form of rudimentary learning is present in the neonatal puppies—a topic that is discussed in greater detail later in this chapter.

Most of a neonatal puppy's time is spent sleeping, with the remaining time devoted to nursing. When sleeping, a puppy exhibits extensive twitching and nervous movements over its entire body. Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have demonstrated that waking and sleeping states exhibit nearly identical patterns of low brain activity (Fox, 1963). Urination and defecation must be elicited by the mother for the first 2 weeks or so by rhythmically licking the anogenital area. Such licking usually occurs just prior to feeding, serving to both wake the puppy for nursing and to elicit elimination (Grant, 1986). A puppy's general motor activities at this stage of development are limited to swimlike crawling movements predominately involving the front legs. Guided by tactile, olfactory, and gustatory senses, a puppy reflexively orients and locates the mother's teat. Forelimb-placing movements are seen after 2 or 3 days, and efforts at forelimb support begin between days 6 and 10. Hind-limb-placing responses are seen after 8 days. Flexor muscles are dom

Table 2.1. Reflexive behavior observed in neonatal puppies

Neonatal Reflexes

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