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Fig. 9.5. Problematical or insolvable conflict occurs in one of two general ways: (1) when events are highly predictable but not adequately under the animal's control when they happen to occur (P/C—), or (2) when the animal has a high degree of control over the event but cannot predict when it is going to happen ((P/C). When respondent and operant events are either both unpredictable and uncontrollable (—P/—C) or highly predictable and controllable (P/C), the result is helplessness, on the one hand, and elated confidence, on the other. Neither helplessness nor elated confidence is associated with conflict. Functional disturbances corresponding to extroverted neuroticism (see above) occur in the anxiety-elation-frustration half of the matrix, whereas disturbances associated with introverted neuroticism occur in the half of the matrix bounded by anxiety-depression-frustration. Under normal conditions, all four of the above influences (anxiety, elation, depression, and frustration) contribute constructively to an animal's adaptation and homeostatic equilibrium (central area).

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