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Fig. 6.2. Varieties of classical conditioning arrangement based on the temporal relation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) to the unconditioned stimulus (US). The least efficient forms of conditioning occur when the CS is presented simultaneously with the US or presented after it occurs.

Fig. 6.2. Varieties of classical conditioning arrangement based on the temporal relation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) to the unconditioned stimulus (US). The least efficient forms of conditioning occur when the CS is presented simultaneously with the US or presented after it occurs.

lytical—the occurrence of the CS is temporally coextensive with the US. Finally, if the CS occurs after the US (backward conditioning) the cognitive correlate is inferential— that is, one can infer that the US has just occurred by the presence of the CS, but the CS fails to become predictive for the US. Although the latter two outcomes of classical conditioning may be of significance to hu man reasoning and causal thinking, such analytical and inferential cognitions play a much less important role in understanding associative processes in animal learning.

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Dog Owners Handbook

Dog Owners Handbook

There are over a hundred registered breeds of dogs. Recognizing the type of the dog is basically associated with its breed. A purebred animal belongs to a documented and acknowledged group of unmixed lineage. Before a breed of dog is recognized, it must be proven that mating two adult dogs of the sametype would have passed on their exact characteristics, both appearance and behavior, to their offspring.

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