Instrumental Learning

Now, whereas the gods have given to men the power of instructing one another in their duty by word of mouth, it is obvious that you can teach a horse nothing by word of mouth. If, however, you reward him when he behaves as you wish, and punish him when he is disobedient, he will best learn to do his duty. This rule can be stated in few words, but it applies to the whole art of horsemanship.

Xenophon, On the Art of Horsemanship (1925/1984)

Differences Between Classical and Instrumental Conditioning

Instrumental-like Conditioning of

Reflexive Behavior A Uniprocess Theory of Learning Theoretical Perspectives Thorndike's Connectionism

Basic Mechanisms of Behavioral Change:

Stamping In and Stamping Out Thorndike's Basic Laws Guthrie's Learning Theory and Behavior

Modification Tolman's Expectancy Theory B. F. Skinner and the Analysis of Behavior Basic Concepts and Principles of Instrumental Learning Terms and Definitions Reinforcing Events Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Reinforcement Timing and Repetition Selective Reinforcement Conditioned Reinforcement and Punishment

Additional Characteristics of Positive Reinforcement

Motivation, Learning, and Performance Antecedent Control: Establishing Operations and Discriminative Stimuli Premack Principle: The Relativity of Reinforcement

Learning and the Control of the Environment

Schedules of Positive Reinforcement Everyday Examples of Reinforcement

Schedules Hope, Disappointment, and Other Emotions Associated with Learning Matching Law

Expectancy and Matching Concurrent Schedules Extinction of Instrumental Learning Extinction Burst Spontaneous Recovery Differential Reinforcement

Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior

Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates Attention Control Training and Stimulus Control Shaping: Training Through Successive Approximations Step 1: Define the Goal or Target Behavior

Step 2: Design a Plan or Program of

Instrumental Contingencies Step 3: Bring the Shaped Behavior Under Stimulus Control Adduction

Chaining: Ordering Complex

Performances Prompting, Fading, and Shadowing Rehearsal and Staging Transfer of Learning Behavioral Contrast and Momentum Social Learning

Allelomimetic Behavior Social Facilitation Local Enhancement

Learning by Observation: Myth or Fact? Higher-Order Classes of Behavior Attention and Learning A Brief Critique of Traditional Learning Theory

Reinforcement and the Notion of probability positive and Negative Reinforcement and

Ockham's Razor An Alternative Theory of Reinforcement Relations Between the Signal, Response, and Outcome punishment Prediction-Control Expectancies and Adaptation Expectancy Disconfirmation and Learning Practical Example Diverters and Disrupters

Conclusion References

THE DISCUSSION in the preceding chapter was mainly limited to an exploration of the more or less involuntary mechanisms and processes mediating stimulus-response (S-R) learning. Behavioral change, however, often involves much more complicated and dynamic interactions between the animal and the environment than the S-R model can adequately handle. Opposed to the involuntary nature of reflexive behavior, a great deal of what a dog does is highly motivated, organized, and goal directed. These more complicated aspects of dog behavior cannot be reduced to a simple chain of S-R events.

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