Location

GO/NO GO

Rapid Acquisition

Slow Acquisition

GO LEFT/ GO RIGHT

Slow Acquisition

Rapid Acquisition

Fig. 5.2. Matrix shows the various relations tested in the Lawicka experiment. Note that acquisition rates differ depending on the sort of response being learned and the type of stimulus presented. After Miller and Bowe

Fig. 5.2. Matrix shows the various relations tested in the Lawicka experiment. Note that acquisition rates differ depending on the sort of response being learned and the type of stimulus presented. After Miller and Bowe

iments clearly show that dogs are prepared to learn directional discriminations with spatially separated signals and go/no go discriminations from signals varied in tone but coming from the same location.

Prepared Connections: Taste Aversion

Another interesting study often discussed in the context of preparedness was performed by Garcia and Koelling (1966). Two groups of rats were given either water having a sweet taste (saccharine flavor) or water presented together with a compound audiovisual (light and noise) stimulus. These two groups were divided and differentially exposed to radiation or shock while they drank the water. The investigators found that radiation was selectively associated with the sweet water but not with the bright-noisy audiovisual stimulus. After exposure, radiated rats avoided sweet water but continued to drink bright-noisy water. In the case of rats exposed to shock while drinking, the bright-noisy stimulus was selectively associated with shock, but shock was not associated with the sweet water. After exposure to shock, the rats would avoid bright-noisy water but continued to drink sweet water (Fig. 5.3). These experiments suggest that rats are biologically prepared to associate taste with nausea and, likewise, to associate light-noise with shock, but unprepared to make the converse associations, that is, to associate taste with shock or light-noise with nausea.

Additional evidence for biological preparedness in taste aversion was provided by a study performed by Wilcoxin and colleagues

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Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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