References Of Behavioral Obidience

Adams D and Flynn JP (1966). Transfer of an escape response from tail shock to brain stimulated attack behavior. J Exp Anal Behav, 8:401-408. Allen BD, Cummings JF, and DeLahunta A

(1974). The effects of prefrontal lobotomy on aggressive behavior in dogs. Cornell Vet,

64:201-216. Arnsten AF (1998). The biology of being frazzled.

Science, 280:1711-1712. Arons DC and Shoemaker WJ (1992). The distribution of catecholamines and beta-endorphin in the brains of three behavioral distinct breeds of dogs and their 2M hybrids. Brain Res, 594:31-39.

Aronson LP (1998). Systemic causes of aggression and their treatment. In N Dodman and L Shuster (Eds), Psychopharmacology of Animal Behavior Disorders. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science.

Azrin NH, Hutchinson RR, and Hake DF (1967). Attack, avoidance, and escape reactions to aver-sive shock. J Exp Anal Behav, 10:131-148. Ballarini G (1990). Animal psychodietetics. J

SmallAnim Pract, 31:523-553. Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC, et al.

(1987). Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparison with rates in unipolar depression and normal controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 44:211-218. Beaumont JG (1983). Introduction to Neuropsy-

chology. New York: Guilford.

Beerda B, Schilder MB, Janssen NS, and Mol JA (1996). The use of saliva Cortisol, urinary Cortisol, and catecholamine measurements for a noninvasive assessment of stress responses in dogs. Horm Behav, 30:272—279.

Borchelt PL and Voith VL (1985). Aggressive behavior in dogs and cats. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet, 7:949-957.

Bouton ME and Swartzentruber D (1991).

Sources of relapse after extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental learning. Clin Psychol Rev, 11:123-140.

Brain PF and Haug M (1992). Hormonal and neurochemical correlates of various forms of animal "aggression." Psychoneuroendocrinology,


Brown PR (1987). Fly catching in the cavalier King Charles spaniel. Vet Rec, 120:95.

Carlson NR (1994). Physiology of Behavior. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Chamberlain B, Ervin FR, Pihl RO, and Young SN (1987). The effect of raising or lowering tryptophan levels on aggression in vervet monkeys. PharmacolBiochem Behav, 28:503-510.

Chaouloff F (1997). Effects of acute physical exercise on central serotonergic systems. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 29:58-62.

Christensen L (1996). Diet-Behavior Relationships: Focus on Depression. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Church RM, LoLordo V, Overmier JB, et al.

(1966) Cardiac responses to shock in curarized dogs: Effects of shock intensity and duration, warning signal, and prior experience with shock. J Comp Physiol Psychol, 62:1-7.

Coover GD, Goldman L, and Levine S (1971). Plasma corticosterone increases produced by extinction of operant behaviour in rats. Physiol

Behav, 6:261-263.

Crawford FT (1977). Induction and duration of tonic immobility. Psychol Rec, 1:89-107.

Crowell-Davis SL, Lappin M, and Oliver JE (1989). Stimulus-responsive psychomotor epilepsy in a Doberman pinscher. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, 25:57-60.

D'Amato FR and Pavone F (1993). Endogenous opioids: A proximate reward mechanism for kin recognition? Behav Neural Biol, 60:79-83.

Davis M (1992). The role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety. Annu Rev Neurosci, 15:353-375.

de Haan M, Buss K, and Wegesin D (1993). Development of peer relations: Effects of prior experience, temperament, and stress reactivity on adjustment to preschool. Poster presented at the Society for Research in Child Develop ment, New Orleans. Delgado JMR (1969). Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society. New York: Harper and Row. Delville Y, Mansour KM, and Ferris CF (1996). Testosterone facilitates aggression by modulating vasopressin receptors in the hypothalamus.

Physiol Behav, 60:25-29. Dey S (1994). Physical exercise as a novel antide-pressant agent: Possible role of serotonin receptor subtypes. Physiol Behav, 55:323-329. Dey S, Singh RH, and Dey PK (1992). Exercise training: Significance of regional alterations in serotonin metabolism of rat brain in relation to antidepressant effect of exercise. Physiol Behav,

52:1095-1099. Dodman N (1998). Pharmacologic treatment of aggression in veterinary patients. In N Dod-man and L Shuster (Eds), Psychopharmacology of Animal Behavior Disorders. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science. Dodman N and Shuster L (1998). Psychopharma-cology of Animal Behavior Disorders. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science. Dodman NH, Donnelly R, Shuster L, et al.

(1996a). Use of fluoxetine to treat dominance aggression in dogs. JAVMA, 209:1585-1587. Dodman NH, Miczek KA, Knowles K, et al. (1992). Phenobarbital-responsive episodic dyscontrol (rage) in dogs. JAVMA, 201:1580-1583. Dodman NH, Reisner I, Shuster L, et al. (1996b). Effect of dietary protein content on behavior in dogs. JAVMA, 208:376-379. Dodman NH, Shuster L, Court MH, et al. (1987). Investigation into the use of narcotic antagonists in the treatment of a stereotypic behavior pattern (crib-biting) in the horse. Am

J Vet Res, 48:311-319. Dodman NH, Shuster L, White SD, et al. (1988). Use of narcotic antagonists to modify stereo-typic self-licking, self-chewing, and scratching behavior in dogs. JAVMA, 193:815-819. Eichelman B (1987). Neurochemical bases of aggressive behavior. Psychiatr Ann, 17:371-374. Eichelman B (1992). Aggressive behavior: From laboratory to clinic. Arch Gen Psychiatr, 49: 488-492.

Eichelman B, Elliot GR, and Barchas JD (1981). Biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic aspects of aggression. In DA Hamburg and MB Trudeau (Eds), Biobehavior Aspects of Aggression. New York: Alan R Liss. Fanselow MS (1991). Analgesia as a response to aversive Pavlovian conditional stimuli: Cognitive and emotional mediators. In MR Denny

(Ed), Fear, Avoidance, and Phobias: A Fundamental Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ferris CF and Delville Y (1994). Vasopressin and serotonin interactions in the control of agonistic behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 19:593-601.

Ferris CF and Potegal M (1988). Vasopressin receptor blockade in the anterior hypothalamus suppresses aggression in hamsters. Physiol Be-

Ferris CF, Meenan DM, Axelson JF, et al. (1986). Vasopressin antagonist can reverse dominant/subordinate behavior in animals. PhysiolBehav, 38:135-138.

Ferris CF, Melloni RH Jr, Koppel G, et al. (1997). Vasopressin/serotonin interactions in the anterior hypothalamus control of aggressive behavior in golden hamsters. J Neurosci, 17:4331-4340.

Fonberg E and Kostarczyk E (1960). Motivational role of social reinforcement in dog-man relations. Acta NeurobiolExp, 40:117-136.

Foutz AS, Mitler MM, and Dement WC (1980). Narcolepsy. Vet Clin North Am Adv Vet Neurol, 10:65-80.

Fox MW (1966). Neuro-behavioral ontogeny: A synthesis of ethological and neurophysiological concepts. Brain Res, 2:3-20.

Fox MW (1968). Abnormal Behavior in Animals, 332-355. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Fraser AF (1985). Background to anomalous behaviour. ApplAnim Behav, 13:199-203.

Gallup GG and Maser JD (1977). Tonic immobility: Evolutionary underpinnings of human catalepsy and catatonia. In JD Maser and MEP Seligman (Eds), Psychopathology: Experimental Models. San Francisco: WH Freeman.

Goldman-Rakic PS (1992). Working memory and the mind. Sci Am, 267:111-117.

Grandin T (1992). Calming effects of deep touch pressure in patients with autistic disorder, college students, and animals. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 2:63-72.

Gray JA (1971). The Psychology of Fear and Stress. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gray JA (1982). Precis of the neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Behav Brain Sci, 3:469-483.

Gray JA (1991). The neuropsychology of temperament. In J Strelau and A Angleitner (Eds), Explorations in Temperament. New York: Plenum.

Gunnar M (1994) Psychoendocrine studies of temperament and stress in early childhood: Expanding current models. In JE Bates and TD

Wachs (Eds), Temperament: Individual Differences at the Interface of Biology and Behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Haemisch A (1990). Coping with social conflict, and short-term changes of plasma cortisol titers in familiar and unfamiliar environments. Physiol Behav, 47:1265-1270.

Hart BL (1980). Behavioral aspects of canine narcolepsy. In BL Hart (Ed), Canine Behavior (A Practitioner Monograph). Santa Barbara, CA: Veterinary Practice.

Hoerlein BF (1971). Canine Neurology: Diagnosis and Treatment. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Hoffman HS (1996). Amorous Turkeys and Addicted Ducklings: A Search for the Causes of Social Attachment. Boston: Authors Cooperative.

Holliday TA, Cunningham JG, and Gutnick MJ (1970). Comparative clinical and electroen-cephalographic studies of canine epilepsy. Epilepsia, 11:281-292.

Hothersall D and Tuber DS (1979). Fears in companion dogs: Characteristics and treatment. In JD Keehn (Ed), Psychopathology in Animals: Research and Clinical Implications. New York: Academic.

Iorio LC, Eisenstein N, Brody PE, and Barnett A (1983). Effects of selected drugs on spontaneously occurring abnormal behavior in beagles. PharmacolBiochem Behav, 18:379-382.

Jacobs BL, Wilkinson LO, and Fornal CA (1990). The role of brain serotonin: A neurophysio-logic perspective. Neuropsychopharmacology,


Jacobs WJ and Nadel L (1985). Stress-induced recovery of fears and phobias. Psychol Rev,


Kagan J and Snidman N (1988). Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science, 240:167-171.

Kagan J, Reznick JS, and Snidman N (1987). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition. ChildDev, 58:1459-1473.

Kalin NH and Shelton SE (1989). Defensive behaviors in infant rhesus monkeys: Environmental cues and neurochemical regulation. Science, 243:1718-1721.

Kandel ER (1991). Disorders of thought: Schizophrenia. In ER Kandel, JH Schwartz, and TM Jessell (Eds), Principles of Neural Science. Nor-walk, CT: Appleton and Lange.

Kehoe EJ and Macrae M (1997). Savings in animal learning: Implications for relapse and maintenance after therapy. Behav Ther,


Kelly DD (1991). Sexual differential of the nervous system. In ER Kandel, JH Schwartz, and

TM Jessell (Eds), Principles of Neural Science. Norwalk, CT: Appleton and Lange.

Kemble ED, Gibson BM, and Rawleigh JM

(1991). Effects of eltoprazine hydrochloride on exploratory behavior and social attraction in mice. PharmacolBiochem Behav, 38:759—762.

Keverne EB, Martensz ND, and Tuite B (1989). Beta-endorphin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of monkeys are influenced by grooming relationships. Psychoneuroendocrinology,


Klein EH, Thomas T, and Uhde TW (1990). Hy-pothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in nervous and normal pointer dogs. Biol Psychiatry, 27:791-794.

Kluver H and Bucy P (1937). "Psychic blindness" and other symptoms following bilateral temporal lobotomy in rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol, 119:352-353.

Knowles PA, Conner RL, and Panksepp J (1987). Opiate effects on social behavior of juvenile dogs as a function of social deprivation. Phar-

macolBiochem Behav, 33:533-537.

Konorski J (1967). Integrative Activity of the Brain: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Koshikawa N (1994). Role of the nucleus accumbens and the striatum in the production of turning behaviour in intact rats. Rev Neurosci,


Kosten TR, Mason JW, Giller EL, et al. (1987). Sustained urinary norepinephrine and epineph-rine elevation in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 12:13-20.

Lavond DG, Jeansok JK, and Thompson RF (1993). Mammalian brain substrates of aver-sive classical conditioning. Annu Rev Psychol, 44:317-342.

LeDoux JE (1994). Emotion, memory, and the brain. Sci Am, 270:50-57.

LeDoux J (1996). The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Leventhal BL and Brodie KH (1981). The pharmacology of violence. In DA Hamburg and MB Trudeau (Eds), BiobehavioralAspects of Aggression. New York: Alan R Liss.

Livingston R (1991). Anxiety disorders. In M Lewis (Ed), Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Comprehensive Textbook. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

Luxenberg JS, Swedo SE, Flament MF, et al.

(1988). Neuroanatomical abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder detected with quantitative x-ray computed tomography. Am J Psychiatry, 145:1089-1093.

Lytle LD, Messing RB, Fisher L, and Phebus L

(1975). Effects of long-term corn consumption on brain serotonin and the response to electric shock. Science, 190:692-694.

MacLean PD (1985). Brain evolution relating to family, play, and the separation call. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 42:405-417.

MacLean PD (1986). Culminating developments in the evolution of the limbic system: The thal-amocingulate division. In BK Doane and KE Livingston (Eds), The Limbic System: Functional Organization and Clinical Disorders. New York: Raven.

Manogue KR, Lesher AI, and Candland DK (1975). Dominance status and adrenocortical reactivity to stress in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Primates, 16:457-463.

McEwen BS (1992). Paradoxical effects of adrenal steroids on the brain: Protection versus degeneration. Biol Psychiatry, 31:177-199.

McGaugh JL (1990). Significance and remembrance: The role of neuromodulatory systems.

Psychol Sci, 1:15-25.

McLeod PJ, Moger WH, Ryon J, et al. (1995). The relation between urinary cortisol levels and social behavior in captive timber wolves. Can J ZooI 74:209-216.

Meeusen R and DeMeirleir (1995). Exercise and brain neurotransmission. Sports Med, 20:160-188.

Menzies RG and Clarke CJ (1995). The etiology of phobias: A nonassociative account. Clin Psy-chol Rev, 15:23-48.

Miczek KA (1983). Ethopharmacology of aggression, defense, and defeat. In EC Simmel, ME Hahn, and JK Walters (Eds), Aggressive Behavior: Genetic and Neural Approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Morand C, Young SN, and Ervin FR (1983). Clinical response of aggressive schizophrenics to oral tryptophan. Biol Psychiatry, 18:575-578.

Moyer KE (1976). The Psychobiology of Aggression. New York: Harper and Row.

Murphree OD (1974). Psychopharmacologic facilitation of operant conditioning of genetically nervous Catahoula and pointer dogs. Pavlov J Biol Sci, 9:17-24.

Nemeroff CB (1998). The neurobiology of depression. Sci Am, 278:42-49.

Nott HMR (1992). Behavioural development of the dog. In C Thorne (Ed), The Waltham Book of Dog and Cat Behaviour. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Olds J and Milner P (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of sep-tal area and other regions of rat brain. J Comp Physiol Psychol, 47:419-427.

Olivier B, Mos J, van der Heyden J, et al. (1987). Serotonergic modulation of agonistic behavior. In B Olivier, J Mos, and PF Brain (Eds), Ethopharmacology of Agonistic Behavior in Animals and Humans. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. Overall K (1997). Clinical Behavioral Medicine for

Small Animals. St. Louis: CV Mosby. Panksepp J (1971). Aggression elicited by electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in albino rat.

Physiol Behav, 6:321-329. Panksepp J (1982). Towards a general psyschobio-logical theory of emotions. Behav Brain Sci,


Panksepp J (1988). Brain opioids and social affect. In P Borchelt, P Plimpton, AH Kutscher, et al. (Eds), Animal Behavior and Thanatology. New York: Foundation of Thanatology. Panksepp J (1992). Oxytocin effects on emotional processes: Separation distress, social bonding, and relationships to psychiatric disorders. Ann NY Acad Sei, 652:243-252. Panksepp J (1998). Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. New York: Oxford University Press. Panksepp J, Conner R, Forster PK, et al. (1983). Opioid effects on social behavior of kennel dogs. ApplAnim Ethol, 10:63-74. Panksepp J, Herman BH, Vilberg T, et al. (1980). Endogenous opioids and social behavior. Neu-rosci Biobehav Rev, 4:473-487. Panksepp J, Normansell L, Herman B, et al. (1988). Neural and neurochemical control of the separation distress call. In D Newman (Ed), The Physiological Control of Mammalian Vocalization. New York: Plenum. Panksepp J, Siviy S, and Normansell L (1984). The psychobiology of play: Theoretical and methodological perspectives. Neurosci Behav

Rev, 8:465-492. Parker JP (1990). Behavioral changes of organic neurologic origin. Prog Vet Neurol, 1:123-131. Pasley JN, Powell EW, and Angel CA (1978). Adrenal glands in nervous pointer dogs. IRCS MedSci, 6:102. Pavlov IP (1927/1960). Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, GV Anrep (Trans). New York: Dover (reprint). Popova NK, Voitenko NN, Kulikov AV, and Av-gustinovich DF (1991). Evidence for the involvement of central serotonin in the mechanism of domestication of silver foxes. PharmacolBiochem Behav, 40:751-756. Premack D (1965). Reinforcement theory. In D Levine (Ed), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. New York: University of Nebraska Press.

Price ML, Curtis AL, Kirby LG, et al. (1998). Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on brain serotonergic activity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 18:492-502.

Radosevich PM, Nash JA, Lacy B, et al. (1989). Effects of low- and high-intensity exercise on plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of ir-beta-endorphin, ACTH, cortisol, norepinephrine and glucose in the conscious dog. Brain Res, 498:89-98.

Ranson SW and Clark SL (1959). The Anatomy of the Nervous System: Its Development and Function. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Rapoport JL, Ryland DH, and Kriete M (1992). Drug treatment of canine acral lick: An animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 49:517-521.

Redding RW (1978). Electroconvulsive therapy. In BF Hoerlein (Ed), Canine Neurology: Diagnosis and Treatment, 694-696. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

Redding RW and Walker TL (1976). Electrocon-vulsive therapy to control aggression in dogs.

Mod Vet Pract, 57:595-597.

Reese WO (1991). Physiology of Domestic Animals. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.

Reid MS, Siegel JM, Dement WC, et al. (1994). Cholinergic mechanisms in canine narcolepsy: II. Acetylcholine release in the pontine reticular formation is enhanced during cataplexy. Neuroscience, 59:523-530.

Reis D (1972). The relationship between brain norepinephrine and aggressive behavior. Res PublAssoc Res Nerv Ment Dis, 50:266-297.

Reisner I (1991). The pathophysiologic basis of behavior problems. Vet Clin North Am Adv Comp Anim Behav, 21:207-224.

Reisner I (1994). Use of lithium for treatment of canine dominance-related aggression: A case study [Abstract]. Appl Anim Behav Sci, 39:190.

Reisner IL, Mann JJ, Stanley M, et al. (1996). Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels in dominant-aggressive and non-aggressive dogs. Brain Res, 714:57-64.

Riccio DC and Spear NE (1991). Changes in memory for aversively motivated learning. In MR Denny (Ed), Fear, Avoidance, and Phobias: A Fundamental Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Richardson R, Riccio DC, and Ress J (1988). Extinction of avoidance through response prevention: Enhancement by administration of epi-nephrine or ACTH. Behav Res Ther, 26:23-32.

Richter CP (1957). On the phenomenon of sudden death in animals and man. Psychosom Med, 19:191-198.

Risch SC and Janowsky DS (1986). Limbic-hypo-

thalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in melancholia. In LL Judd and PM Groves (Eds), Psychobiological Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.

Rogeness GA (1994). Biologic findings in conduct disorder. In M Lewis (Ed), Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America: Disruptive Disorders. Philadelphia: WB Saun-ders.

Sapolsky RM (1990). Stress in the wild. Sci Am, 262:116-123.

Scott JP and Fuller JL (1965). Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Scott JP, Stewart JM, and DeGhett VJ (1973). Separation in infant dogs. In JP Scott and EC Senay (Eds), Separation and Anxiety: Clinical and Research Aspects (AAAS Symposium, Washington, DC).

Seligman MEP (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death. San Francisco: Freeman.

Selye H (1976). The Stress ofLife. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shepherd GM (1983). Neurobiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Siegel A and Edinger H (1981). Neural control of aggression and rage behavior. In PJ Morgane and J Panksepp (Eds), Handbook of the Hypothalamus, Vol 3, Part B: Behavioral Studies of the Hypothalamus. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Spring B (1986). Effects of foods and nutrients on the behavior of normal individuals. In RJ Wurtman and JJ Wurtman (Eds), Nutrition and the Brain, 7:1-47. New York: Raven.

Stein DJ, Borchelt P, and Hollander E (1994). Pharmacotherapy of naturally occurring anxiety symptoms in dogs. Res Commun Psychol Psychiatry Behav, 19:39-48.

Stein DJ, Hollander E, and Liebowits MR (1993). Neurobiology of impulsivity and the impulse control disorders. J Neuropsychiatry, 5:9-17.

Stein DJ, Shoulberg N, Helton K, and Hollander E (1992). The neuroethological approach to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry 33:274-281.

Steinmetz JE (1994) Brain substrates of emotion and temperament. In JE Bates and TD Wachs (Eds), Temperament: Individual Differences at the Interface of Biology and Behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Suvorov NF, Shuvaev VT, Voilokova NL, et al. (1997). Corticostriatal mechanisms of behavior. Neurosci Behav Physiol, 27:653-662.

Swedo SE (1989). Rituals and releasers: An etho-logical model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In J Rapoport (Ed), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Swenson MJ (1984) Duke's Physiology of Animals. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Tancer ME, Stein MB, Bessette BB, and Uhde TW (1990). Behavioral effects of chronic imipramine treatment in genetically nervous pointer dogs. Physiol Behav, 48:179-181.

Thompson RF (1967). Foundations of Physiological Psychology. New York: Harper and Row.

Thompson RF (1993). The Brain: A Neuroscience Primer. New York: WH Freeman.

Timberlake W and Allison J (1974). Response deprivation: An empirical approach to instrumental performance. Psychol Rev, 81:146-164.

Tortora DF (1983). Safety training: The elimination of avoidance-motivated aggression in dog. JExp Psychol Gen, 112:176-214.

Uhde TW, Malloy LC, and Slate SO (1992). Fearful behavior, body size, and serum IGF-I levels in nervous and normal pointer dogs. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 43:263-269.

Voith VL (1979). Behavioral problems. In EA Chandler, EA Evans, WB Singleton, et al. (Eds), Canine Medicine and Therapeutics. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Welker WI (1973). Principles of organization of the ventrobasal complex in mammals. Brain Behav Evol, 7:253-336.

White NM and Milner PM (1992). The psychobi-ology of reinforcers. Annu Rev Psychol,


White SD (1990). Naltrexone for treatment of acral lick dermatitis in dog. JAVMA, 196:1073-1076.

Wise SP and Rapoport JL (1989). Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Is it basal ganglia dysfunction? In JL Rapoport (Ed), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Young SN (1986) The clinical psychopharmacol-ogy of tryptophan. In RJ Wurtman and JJ Wurtman (Eds), Nutrition and the Brain, 7:49-88. New York: Raven.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment