Bull Terrier

he development of the Bull Terrier began about 200 years ago in England when the Bulldog and White English Terrier were crossed to create a breed then known as the Bull and Terrier. Some breed experts believe that the Black and Tan Terrier was also an ancestor, as was the Spanish Pointer. Although never one to back down from a challenge, the Bull Terrier was called the White Cavalier for his wonderful temperament. The medium-sized dogs, then ranging from 15 to 17 pounds, became known as Miniature Bull Terriers, while the larger dogs were simply called Bull Terriers.

The Mini Bull is small but is still all Bull Terrier. He stands between 10 and 15 inches tall, and his weight should be in proportion to his height. His head should be long and deep, with a full oval face just like that of his larger cousin. The eyes are small and dark, and the ears are small and erect. The chest is deep and the body muscular. The tail tapers to a fine point. The coat is short and flat. White Mini Bulls should be pure white, while colored Mini Bulls may be of any color.

Grooming consists of a weekly brushing with a soft bristle brush.

The Mini Bull is a moderately active breed. He enjoys brisk walks, a chance to train in agility, and a good romp in the backyard. The breed can be busy and, if left alone for too many hours, also destructive.

Mini Bulls need early training and socialization. Training should be structured and firm, and the owner must establish leadership. The Miniature Bull Terrier Club of America says, "The dogs are active, stubborn (not stupid), and demanding of interaction. They need a firm, intelligent, consistent discipli-

Breed in Brief narian.

For an owner who understands the breed, a Mini Bull can be a fun, challenging, and sometimes chaotic companion. Mini Bulls can be great with kids but do not understand children's roughhousing. They can be dog-aggressive. Health concerns include eye problems, heart and kidney disease, and deafness.

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Vermin hunter, companion Size: 10 to 15 in tall; weight proportionate to height Longevity: 10 to 13 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Challenge Grooming: Easy

iniature Pinscher

his German breed is several hundred years old, and although it resembles the much younger Doberman Pinscher, they are not related. Breed experts say these small dogs, developed as ratters, have German Pinschers, Dachshunds, and Italian Greyhounds in their ancestry.

Miniature Pinschers stand between 10 and 12.5 inches tall and weigh between 8 and 11 pounds. The head is tapered, eyes are oval and dark, and ears are cropped upright or left natural. The body is as long as the dog is tall and is muscular. The tail is docked and erect, and the short coat is red, black, or chocolate. A signature characteristic of the breed is a hackneylike stepping action, with the front legs lifting high and forward with each step.

The coat needs weekly brushing with a soft bristle brush.

The Miniature Pinscher is a high-energy dog with a fearless attitude and a curious intelligence. Without close supervision and vigorous daily exercise, these little dogs will get into trouble. All exercise should be on leash or within a fenced-in yard, as these small dogs like to chase small animals.

Training is very important. Min Pins were bred to work, and training can help channel this work ethic. The training should be structured and firm yet fun. They love to play games and learn tricks. Min Pins also enjoy agility training. Socialization should begin early, too, as the breed is cautious with strangers. They can be very alert watchdogs.

Min Pins today are companion dogs and need to spend time with people. They can, however, take advantage of a soft owner. Although most Min Pins like to play with children (the dogs enjoy the playfulness and busyness of kids), these dogs are very small and fragile. Play with children, especially small children, should be limited and closely supervised. Many breeders will not sell puppies to homes with small children. This breed can be aggressive with other dogs. Health concerns include luxated patellas, Legg-Perthe's disease, and thyroid problems.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Vermin hunter, companion Size: 10 to 12.5 in tall; 8 to 11 lbs

Longevity: 12 to 14 years Exercise: Active Training: Moderate Grooming: Easy

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iniature Schnauzer

ll three of the Schnauzer breeds were developed in the agricultural areas of Wurttemberg and Bavaria in Germany. The Standard Schnauzer was the original breed, and the Miniatures are said to be derived from breeding the Standard with Poodles and Affenpinschers in the late 19th century. History doesn't say why the Miniature was developed or what his original occupation was, although some experts think he was a ratter and mouser. Today, he is a companion dog.

The Miniature should look as much as possible like a smaller version of the Standard Schnauzer. He is sturdy and active, should be between 12 and 14 inches tall at the shoulder, and should weigh between 12 and 16 pounds. He should never appear frail, fragile, or toylike. The eyes are oval and dark, with an alert expression that conveys a willingness to try anything. The ears can be cropped or fold normally in a V-shape. The breed has a double coat, with the undercoat close and soft. The outer coat is hard and wiry. Allowable colors are salt and pepper, black and silver, and solid black.

Grooming the Miniature Schnauzer can be a challenge. Those dogs who compete in the conformation show ring must be hand-stripped. If you wish to do this yourself, ask your dog's breeder for

guidance. Most pet dogs are groomed every four to six weeks by professional groomers who use clippers and scissors. Although the Miniature Schnauzer doesn't shed, the dog will need twice weekly combing and brushing to keep the leg feathers from tangling. You may also want to wash and comb the beard regularly, as it can get wet, pick up dirt and debris, and trap bits of food.

Although Miniature Schnauzers are small dogs, they do need regular exercise. A long walk morning and evening will help satisfy those needs, but most young dogs will also need a couple of play sessions during the day. Many Miniature Schnauzers today enjoy participating in a variety of canine sports, especially agility.

Early socialization and training are important for all Miniature Schnauzers. They are by nature loyal and affectionate but can also be standoffish to strangers. Socialization can help the dog learn to accept a variety of people. Getting along with other puppies of the same age is also an important lesson for these sturdy little dogs who don't always understand how small they are. Training will help establish household rules. In addition, Miniature Schnauzers are excellent watchdogs who can sometimes take their job too seriously, barking more than their owners and neighbors might want. Training can help temper those impulses.

Miniature Schnauzers can be wonderful family dogs and are usually quite tolerant of children's antics. Rough play should be discouraged, as the dog may protest being handled disrespectfully. These dogs are loyal and attentive to the entire family and will greet friends with enthusiasm. They do, however, have the tendency to bond tightly with just one person. With early socialization, they can be quite social with other dogs but should not be trusted with small pets. Major health concerns include eye disorders, von Willebrand disease, and allergies.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Vermin hunter, companion, performance sports

Longevity: 14 to 16 years Exercise: Daily walks and playtime Training: Challenge Grooming: Difficult

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ixed-Breed Dog

/""*'s /g /f ixed-breed dogs have been v v/ with people for as long as there have been dogs. The vast majority of breeds today were created from a mixture of older breeds, usually a purposely bred mixture of breeds. This selective breeding was done with a specific purpose in mind—for example, to create a better herding dog or a coonhound with a more sensitive nose.

Today, however, the term "mixed-breed" usually refers to breeding that was an accident. Often called random bred dogs (to differentiate from purposely bred ones), they can be amazing mixes. They may be the result of two purebred dogs of different breeds and therefore show traits of both breeds, or they can be the result of two mixed-breed parents, with no discernable purebred traits.

A purebred puppy is much more of a known entity than a mixed-breed puppy. With a purebred, you know what kind of coat the dog will have and how much grooming you will need to do. You know how big the dog will be when grown and how much exercise he will need. You'll even have a pretty good idea of how easy or difficult it will be to train him. A mixed-breed dog who is the result of two purebred parents will have traits of both breeds. However, if the breeds are dissimilar, traits will be difficult to predict. Now, if the puppy is a result of two mixed-breed parents, well, then, everything is going to be a surprise!

Many people enjoy the surprise of a mixed-breed dog. Watching a puppy grow up, they often try to pinpoint certain traits or physical characteristics, but most of the time they simply enjoy their unique dog. Because that's the other fun part of a mixed-breed—every single one is different. Even puppies in the same litter can be different because each one has its own set of genetics inherited from mom and dad.

Mixed-breed dogs are also reputed to be healthier than purebred dogs; however, that can be both true and false. Any dog, purebred or mixed-breed, is the result of his individual genetics. If the dog's parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents are genetically healthy, then chances are the puppy will be, too. But ultimately, all dogs are also healthy or not because of their care. The quality of the food they eat, the nurturing they receive from their owner, and regular veterinary care will also contribute to how healthy the dog is. That applies to all dogs, no matter what the breed or mixture of breeds.

eapolitan Mastiff

he Neapolitan Mastiff claims as her ancestors the war dogs that traversed Europe with the Roman Army. Since that time, Neapolitan Mastiffs have been used as guardians of large estates in Italy.

A male Mastino (a fancier's term for a dog of the breed) stands 26 to 29 inches tall and weighs 140 to 170 pounds. Females are slightly smaller. The body is longer than tall, and the breed is massively built. The head is very large, with deep-set eyes and ears that are usually cropped upright. The tail is normally docked by one-third its length. A characteristic of the breed is the loose skin all over the dog, including the head. The coat is short and dense. Primary colors are gray, black, and mahogany.

Grooming is not difficult; the short coat should be brushed weekly. The wrinkles sometimes need care and cleaning, especially the ones on the face. These dogs do drool, though, and can be messy. Most owners keep a towel at hand to mop up the drool.

Puppies can be quite active and playful. They should not be encouraged to run hard or jump for a ball; doing so could damage their growing bones and joints. Walks and playtimes are sufficient. Adults are generally calm.

Since this breed was bred to be watchful and protective, early socialization to a variety of people, dogs, and other animals is vital. Without it, the Mastino can be shy, and that is potentially dangerous. Early training is also important, as this very large, powerful breed could easily overpower an owner. Owners need to assume the role of the dog's leader.

This breed needs an owner who understands what a mastiff is and can handle the breed's natural protectiveness. Interactions with children must be supervised, as children could be inadvertently knocked down or hurt. These dogs are often dogaggressive, especially with dogs of the same sex. Health concerns include sensitivity to heat, eye defects, heart and thyroid problems, and hip dysplasia.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Guardian Size: 26 to 29 in tall; 140 to

170 lbs Longevity: 8 to 10 years Exercise: Low activity level Training: Challenge; needs socialization Grooming: Easy

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ewfoundland he Newfoundland was developed on the island of Newfoundland on the east coast of Canada. The ancestors of the breed are uncertain. Some breed experts feel that the Great Pyrenees is the primary ancestor breed, while others believe that the Tibetan Mastiff was also an ancestor. In any case, the dogs were bred to the small black water dogs (most likely the same breed that produced Labrador Retrievers), producing a giant dog who was a hard worker on land and an excellent swimmer.

A Newfoundland stands between 26 and 28 inches tall at the shoulder and weighs between 100 and 150 pounds. She is heavily boned, muscular, and strong. Her body is slightly longer than she is tall, her head is large and broad, and the eyes are dark brown. The ears are triangular and folded. The tail is plumed and carried low. The Newfie has a double coat, with the undercoat soft and dense. The outer coat is coarse and moderately long. The backs of the legs are feathered. Coat colors include black, brown (bronze), gray (blue), and black and white.

The coat needs thorough brushing two or three times per week, more during the spring and fall when shedding is at its worst. If the dog spends any time in the water, the coat should be thoroughly dried afterward to help prevent tangles and mats. Most Newfies drool, especially around dinnertime and after drinking.

The Newfie needs exercise each day, but her requirements are not excessive. A good long walk morning and evening will suffice, as will a chance to go swimming. Young Newfies with excess energy can be creative about getting into trouble and can be destructive chewers.

Training should begin early; a Newfie could easily overpower her owner. Newfie puppies enjoy the socialization of a puppy class and will join in with the play of other puppies. Training and socialization should continue after puppy class; this is a working dog who needs a job to do.

Newfoundlands can be wonderful family dogs. The puppies are big and clumsy and need to be taught to be gentle with small children. They are usually good with other dogs and can be good with small pets, although interactions should be supervised. Health concerns include hip and elbow dysplasia, bloat, torsion, and eye disorders.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Water rescue, draft dog, companion Size: 26 to 28 in tall; 100 to

150 lbs Longevity: 9 to 11 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Bright and intelligent; moderately hard to motivate Grooming: Moderate

orrbottenspets

his Swedish spitz-type dog is known in its homeland as an excellent hunting dog, able to handle the long winters and deep snows to hunt birds, moose, and even bears. There are many legends of these dogs chasing away bears who have attacked their owners.

Norrbottenspets are 16.5 to 17.5 inches tall and weigh 25 to 30 pounds. The head is wedge-shaped, with moderately large, almond-shaped eyes and erect ears. The body is as long as the dog is tall at the shoulder. The chest is deep and the body strong. The tail reaches the hocks but is carried high and curls over the back. The undercoat is fine and dense, while the outer coat is hard, short, and straight. All colors are permitted, although white with red patches is the most common. This coat is easy to care for and requires twice weekly brushing. When the dog is shedding, additional brushing is advisable.

This is an active breed who will run alongside a bicycle or enjoy training on the agility course. A daily run or vigorous game of catch is necessary. A Norrbottenspets who does not get enough exercise will get into trouble. All exercise should be within a fenced yard, as these dogs still love to hunt and have a tendency to wander.

Although this breed can be quite independent, Norr-bottenspets are intelligent, curious, and can be trained as long as the training is fun yet firm. Many of these dogs are serving admirably as search-and-rescue dogs. When hunting or searching, they have great stamina and work tirelessly. They are not watchdogs, although they can sometimes bark too much during play, which could cause problems with neighbors.

The Norrbottenspets needs an active owner who enjoys working with the dog. Although small to medium in size, this dog is not a lap dog; she needs a job to do. Affectionate and gentle, the breed is great with kids. She may not be trustworthy with smaller pets, though she is usually great with other dogs. This is a healthy, long-lived breed.

Breed in Brief

Registries: UKC, CKC Occupation: Hunter Size: 16.5 to 17.5 in tall to 30 lbs Longevity: 16 to 18 years Exercise: Active Training: Moderate Grooming: Easy

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orwegian

Pit Bulls as Pets

Pit Bulls as Pets

Are You Under The Negative Influence Of Hyped Media Stereotypes When It Comes To Your Knowledge Of Pit Bulls? What is the image that immediately comes into your mind when you think of the words Pit Bull? I can almost guarantee that they would be somewhere close to fierce, ferouscious, vicious, killer, unstoppable, uncontrollable, or locking jawed man-eaters.

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