Colored and White

he' Bull Terrier is descended from the old White English Terrier. Crossed with the old English Bulldog, Spanish Pointer, and some say even Dalmatian, this Bull Terrier was a gentleman's dog and was called the White Cavalier. The dog was friendly and mannerly but would not refuse if a challenge was thrown her way.

The breed went through many changes during its development, and many people were instrumental in bringing these changes about. James Hicks is credited with producing all-white dogs, or dogs who were all white with a patch of color on the head. Ted Lyon brought about the colored Bull Terriers, especially the brindle. Harry Monk has been given credit for producing dogs with the preferred tulip ear. Monk also worked to produce the egg-shaped head for which the breed is now known. Billie Tuck worked to perfect that skull shape. The Bull Terrier today may not look like the dogs of 150 years ago, but the breed is unique and handsome.

The Bully today is a muscular, athletic dog standing between 21 and 22 inches tall and weighing between 45 and 65 pounds. (The Miniature Bull Terrier is a separate breed and is profiled on page 296.) The distinguishing characteristic of this breed is the egg-shaped head. Seen in

profile, the head curves downward from between the ears to the nose. The body is strong and fit, with a deep, broad chest and a short coat. The white variety is all white, although patches of color on the head are allowed. The colored variety is predominantly another color (brindle is preferred), with or without white markings.

This breed should be brushed twice a week with a soft bristle brush.

Bull Terriers are quite playful. They love to play games, chase toys, and, as very social dogs, will encourage you to walk every day. The breed is known for its ability to chew, however, so toys for their games must be chosen wisely. All exercise should be within a fenced yard or on leash. If a Bully takes off after a squirrel, she could easily run off, become lost, or be hit by a car.

The Bull Terrier Club of America says, "Obedience and socialization classes are a must for Bull Terriers. Proper training will provide good manners, socialization skills, and bond the dog to you." They continue by saying, "The Bull Terrier must be handled firmly but with patience and positive reinforcement." Although the Bull Terrier has a much different look from most other terriers, she is still very much a terrier. She is active, intelligent, sometimes stubborn, and quite independent when she wants to be. Continued training into adulthood can help channel those characteristics.

This breed will thrive in a busy home where people will spend time with her. Although young Bullies can be quite rough and rambunctious, adults are great with kids—playful and tolerant. When raised with them, she will be good with the family cat but will chase any stray cats who come into her yard. She may try to hunt smaller pets. Male Bullies are often intolerant of other male dogs. Health concerns include deafness; kidney, heart, and knee problems; and allergies.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Companion Size: 21 to 22 in tall; 45 to 65 lbs

Longevity: 12 to 14 years Exercise: Very playful and active

Training: Challenge; hard to keep focused Grooming: Easy

aim Terrier

^^e Cairn Terrier is from the Isle of Skye, Scotland, and is a working terrier. Traditionally, this breed's job was to protect small farms from foxes and other vermin. He would squirm his way into piles of rocks, called cairns, to get to a hiding fox or badger. He would then either flush the vermin or hold it there so the farmer could dispatch it. Originally classified as a Scotch Terrier and then as one of the Skye Terriers, he became known as the Cairn Terrier in 1912. The breed is closely related to the West Highland White Terrier, and in early years the two were cross-bred.

The Cairn Terrier today is still a game, hardy, working terrier. Size is of utmost importance, with males weighing 14 pounds and females weighing a pound less. These dogs are short-legged but should be proportional, with most standing between 9.5 and 10 inches tall. The skull is broad, muzzle strong, eyes hazel, and nose black. The ears are upright and small. The tail is short and carried upright. The coat is double, with a hard outer coat and a soft undercoat. The coat may be any color except white.

The Cairn Terrier Club of America recommends weekly brushing and combing to keep shedding to a minimum. They also recommend trimming the hair from the tips of the ears, tail, and feet. Many Cairns are allergic to fleas, so keeping the dog free of these pests is important.

Cairn Terriers are active little dogs who love to play. Although they enjoy a walk morning and evening, walks are not enough exercise for this spunky little dog. A Cairn also needs a chance to play on the agility course, chase a ball, or jump for a small flying disc. All off-leash exercise should be within a fenced-in yard, because Cairns love to chase squirrels and other small animals. If your terrier takes off after a small animal, all the calling in the world will not bring him back.

The Cairn Terrier Club of America recommends kindergarten puppy classes for young Cairns, saying, "Be sure to train your puppy with firmness and consistency. Harsh punishment is not necessary. Be sure, though, that your Cairn knows you are in charge. Like children, they will test your limits, but need discipline to turn out well." Training should continue on into adulthood to keep this bright breed's mind active. Cairn Terriers are also quite good at many canine sports, including agility, obedience trials, tracking, and terrier go-to-ground competitions.

Cairn Terriers are great family dogs. They are affectionate and enjoy children and their games. They are sturdy enough to take some rough play, but kids should be taught to treat them with respect. Cairns prefer to be with people; when left alone for too many hours, they are prone to get into trouble. Most Cairns also get along well with other dogs. They are fine with cats when raised with them but will chase strange cats who come into their yard. Cairns should not be trusted with smaller pets; a Cairn will have a hard time differentiating between a pet rat and a wild rat. Health concerns include eye problems, liver shunt, and knee problems.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Vermin hunter Size: 9.5 to 10 in tall; 13 to 14 lbs

Longevity: 13 to 15 years Exercise: Busy and active;

playful Training: Moderate Grooming: Easy

anaan Dog

r i he Canaan Dog is the native dog of Israel. Drawings on tombs at Beni-Hassan, which date to 2200 B.C., depict dogs that look like the Canaan Dogs of today. When the Romans invaded and scattered the Israelites, the native dogs escaped extinction by becoming feral. They lived wild in the Negev Desert for centuries. Some dogs also served the Bedouins as both guard dogs and herding dogs.

The Canaan Dog stands between 19 and 24 inches tall and weighs 35 to 55 pounds. The head is wedge-shaped, the ears are upright, and the eyes are almond-shaped and dark. The tail is often curled over the back when the dog is excited. The double coat has a harsh, flat outer coat and a soft, short undercoat. Canaan Dogs are predominantly white with patches of color, or a solid color with or without white trim.

The Canaan Dog does shed, although the heaviness of the undercoat varies according to climate. Twice weekly brushing will suffice for most of the year; daily brushing may be needed during shedding.

A native desert breed, the Canaan Dog is most active in the morning and evening and is content to sleep during the heat of the day. He enjoys walks, games, and many dog sports, including agility, herding, search and rescue, and tracking.

Naturally protective, early socialization can temper the Canaan Dog's responses. He also needs early socialization to other friendly dogs because he can be dog-aggressive. The Israel Canaan Dog Club of America says, "The Canaan Dog is a survivor because of his self-reliance and his adaptability. He is not a dog for everyone. His independence requires that his owner be loving but firmly in charge."

This breed needs an experienced dog owner who is patient and affectionate, yet firm and willing to establish household and social rules for the dog. He is good with kids who respect him. His interaction with other dogs and animals should be closely supervised. The primary health concern is hip dysplasia.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Guardian, herder

Longevity: 13 to 15 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Moderate Grooming: Easy; does shed

anadian Eskimo Dog

Husky Looking

he ancestors of today's Canadian Eskimo Dog arrived in the Arctic regions around 1200 A.D. The dogs were the companions and working partners of the Inuit people. The dogs pulled sleds, carried backpacks, hunted, and warned of polar bears. However, as the modern age intruded into the Arctic, the dogs were replaced with modern tools. By 1970, the breed was facing extinction. Although efforts are underway to save the breed, its future is still in jeopardy.

These dogs stand between 23 and 27.5 inches tall and weigh 60 to 100 pounds. The ears are erect but not large. The eyes are usually dark; blue eyes are not allowed by the breed standard. The coat is dense, with a heavy undercoat and a long outer coat. Any coat color is permitted. The tail is long and is usually carried curled over the back.

The coat should be brushed at least twice a week, although daily brushing may be needed when shedding is at its worst.

This breed was designed to work. If there is no work to do (weight pulling, sledding, skijoring, or agility), then these dogs need vigorous exercise. When there is no snow, they can run alongside a bicycle. Without work or adequate exercise, they can get into trouble.

Training should begin early. The Canadian Eskimo Dog Club of Canada says, "Firm training is essential for this breed, as they are very determined." Training can also provide the breed with a job to do.

Unlike the Siberian Husky, the Alaskan Malamute, and other northern breeds, this breed is relatively unknown to pet owners, which may have led to its present predicament. However, pet owners who enjoy northern breeds can still help save the Canadian Eskimo Dog. When provided with training and exercise, this dog can be a good pet. He is patient with children who treat him respectfully. He should not be trusted with other small pets; his hunting instincts are too strong. This is a healthy breed.

Breed in Brief

Registries: CKC, UKC, ARBA Occupation: Sled dog, hunter Size: 23 to 27.5 in tall; 60 to

100 lbs Longevity: 11 to 13 years Exercise: Needs exercise and a job to do Training: Needs firm training Grooming: Sheds!

ane Corso

Cane Corso Brindle

he Cane Corso is an old Italian breed, with evidence to its use during the Roman Empire. However, after World War II, changes in how people hunted and raised livestock led to the breed's decline, so much so that it was facing extinction. Fanciers, however, have saved the breed.

The Cane Corso is 23.5 to 27 inches tall, weighs 90 to 120 pounds, and has a large head, short muzzle, and muscular jaws. The ears are either naturally dropped or cropped upright. His body is strong and powerful, and his tail is docked. His coat is short and stiff and may be black, gray, or fawn.

Grooming consists of twice weekly brushing with a soft bristle brush or curry comb.

The Cane Corso is not an overly active breed but does need daily activity. Walks that provide socialization opportunities are good, as he needs to continue to meet people. He will also enjoy games, especially with kids, but he is not good at amusing himself—he prefers to do what the family is doing.

Shauna de Moss of CastleGuard Cane Corsos says, "The Corso is a dominant guardian breed that requires extensive socialization, thorough obedience training, and confident owners who understand how to establish pack order." This dog is intelligent and responsive to training, and if bonded to his owner, is willing to please. The Cane Corso Association of America says, "It is strongly recommended that training become a permanent part of your life."

de Moss says, "This is a complicated, intelligent breed and is not for most pet owners. Anyone considering the breed should do considerable research on the breed temperament and meet several dogs." Those who understand living with a dominant dog will find the Corso affectionate, loyal, and protective. When raised with kids who treat him with respect, the Corso is awesome. He can be good with other pets when raised with them. Health concerns include eyelid problems, bloat, torsion, and hip dysplasia.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC FSS, CKC Occupation: Versatile guardian Size: 23.5 to 27 in tall; 90 to

120 lbs Longevity: 10 to 12 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Difficult Grooming: Easy ardigan Welsh Corgi

he Cardigan Welsh Corgi is an old breed descended from dogs the Celts brought to Wales more than 3,000 years ago. The two Corgi breeds are related, although the Cardigan (the breed with a tail) is much older than the Pembroke Welsh Corgi (the breed without a tail). Originally a ratter and a cattle herding dog, the Cardigan today is primarily a companion dog.

The Cardigan is a long-bodied, low-slung, sturdy dog with heavy bone and a deep chest. Standing 10.5 to 12.5 inches tall and weighing between 25 and 38 pounds, he should give an impression of both speed and endurance, even with very short legs. The head is wedge-shaped, with large upright ears and brown eyes. The front legs are bowed. The tail is long and bushy. The double coat has a soft undercoat and a medium-length outer coat. Coat colors include black, blue merle, sable, red, and brindle.

The coat should be brushed two to three times a week, although daily brushing might be needed in the spring and fall when shedding is at its worst.

This Corgi is not an overly active dog, but he is far from sedate. He loves to play games and enjoys daily walks. Without enough exercise, he will find ways to amuse himself that could get him into trouble.

The Cardigan needs early socialization so that he can meet a variety of people, as he is naturally protective and wary of strangers. A very intelligent breed, early training can teach him household rules. Training should continue on into adulthood, as this breed thrives with mental challenges. He also enjoys many dog sports, especially herding and agility.

The Cardigan is very much a companion dog who enjoys his family and likes to do things. He may try to herd the children and the family cat. He is wary of strange dogs and should not be trusted with small pets; he is still an efficient ratter. Health concerns include eye problems and hip dysplasia.

Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Herder, companion Size: 10.5 to 12.5 in tall; 25

to 38 lbs Longevity: 12 to 14 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Easy; hard to keep challenged Grooming: Easy arolina Dog

N^^Tarolina Dogs, also called American Dingos, are free-ranging dogs who have lived in remote areas of South Carolina, Georgia, and other parts of the American Southeast. Written descriptions by some of the first European settlers to the area suggest that these dogs were in the region even then. Captive breeding has shown several primitive behaviors, including pack hierarchy and cooperative hunting. Unlike many other wild canines, Carolina Dogs, when bred in captivity and raised with people, make great family pets when their needs are known and understood.

The Carolina Dog usually stands between 17 and 24 inches tall and weighs between 40 and 60 pounds, but there is some variety in size. This breed has a primitive look. These dogs have large erect ears, almond-shaped dark eyes, and a long tail. The body is muscular without being bulky. The coat is short, with a dense undercoat in the winter. Coat color may be ginger, black and tan, or piebald.

Twice weekly brushing is sufficient, except the undercoat sheds heavily in the spring and fall and at those times needs more frequent brushing.

Carolina Dogs are active but not overly so. Two walks a day with a playtime in between are fine for most dogs. These dogs do enjoy more playtime, however, and will willingly participate in hikes, camping, agility training, flying disc, and running alongside a bicycle. Exercise should be on leash or inside a fenced yard; this breed does hunt naturally, and if a rabbit or squirrel is flushed and the dog is off leash, he'll be gone.

Carolina Dogs are, by nature, reserved with strangers. Early socialization is very important, as is early training. The breed thrives on gentle, positive training and enjoys learning.

Carolina Dogs can be very good with children when raised with them and when the children are kind and gentle. The breed is not normally destructive in the house and not prone to escaping from the yard. This is a healthy breed.

Breed in Brief

Registries: UKC, ARBA Occupation: Primitive dog Size: 17 to 24 in tall; 40 to 60 lbs

Longevity: 12 to 14 years

Exercise: Active

Training: Easy; needs positive methods Grooming: Easy

aucasian Ovtcharka he Caucasian Ovtcharka (or Ovcharka), also known as the Caucasian Shepherd, is a livestock guardian breed from the region that includes Georgia, Armenia, and Turkey. The breed has also been used as a versatile military dog in Russia.

Males are 25.5 inches at the shoulder, weighing more than 100 pounds. Females are slightly smaller. The head is wedge-shaped, the eyes are dark, and the ears may be cropped. The strong body is longer than it is tall. The coat is double with a dense undercoat. The most common color is gray, but other colors include rust, straw, earth, spotted, piebald, and brindle.

The Caucasian's coat sheds all the time, but brushing two to three times a week will keep it manageable. However, when the dog begins his annual shed, daily brushing is definitely in order.

This is a low-energy breed. He will be happy with a walk morning and evening and dozing during the heat of the day, but should a trespasser walk into his house or yard, he will be up in a flash. Puppies are more playful than adults.

Caucasian Ovtcharka International recommends a puppy kindergarten class for all puppies, followed by more obedience training: "Obedience training helps establish the bond between you as pack leader and your dog as a respected member of the pack." As guardian dogs, early socialization will help the dogs of this breed fit into society.

Caucasian Ovtcharka International says, "This breed is not the dog for everyone. They demand time, attention, frequent training, and handling. They are strong, willful, and cannot be expected to like everyone. Without proper training, they can be very aggressive to both people and dogs." Like most other guardian breeds, they also bark a lot, which can annoy neighbors. The breed can be good with kids with training, but will not necessarily be good with your kids' friends. (They don't understand rough play.) This is a healthy breed.


Breed in Brief

Registries: AKC FSS, UKC, ARBA

Occupation: Livestock guardian Size: 25.5 in tall; 100+ lbs Longevity: 10 to 12 years Exercise: Low activity level Training: Challenge Grooming: Sheds

Pit Bulls as Pets

Pit Bulls as Pets

Are You Under The Negative Influence Of Hyped Media Stereotypes When It Comes To Your Knowledge Of Pit Bulls? What is the image that immediately comes into your mind when you think of the words Pit Bull? I can almost guarantee that they would be somewhere close to fierce, ferouscious, vicious, killer, unstoppable, uncontrollable, or locking jawed man-eaters.

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