£ j achshunds originated in Germany and have a documented history going back as far as — ' the 15th century. Most breed experts feel that Basset Hounds and some unknown terriers were the ancestors of the breed. The Bassets provided the long body, short legs, strength, good nose for scenting, and smooth coat. The terriers provided tenacity, stamina, the drive to hunt, and the wire coat to that variety. Other experts feel the Dachshund is simply a short-legged version of the German Schweisshund. In any case, the name Dachshund wasn't given to these long-bodied, low-slung hunting dogs until the 17th century; the name reflects both the breed's hunting ability and its prey drive (Dachshund means badger hunter).
In the United States, Dachshunds are found in two sizes: standard and miniature. Standards weigh between 16 and 32 pounds, while miniatures weigh less than 11 pounds. In Germany, there are three sizes that are determined by the dog's chest measurement. The dwarf Dachshund measures no more than 13.8 inches around the chest, while the rabbit Dachshund measures no more than 11.8 inches. The standard is the largest, measuring more than 13.8 inches.
All sizes have three coat varieties. The smooth coat is shiny and slick. The longhaired is silky and slightly wavy with feathers on the legs and tail. The wirehaired has a rough, coarse, wiry coat with a softer undercoat. In all varieties, the dog is long-bodied and muscular, with short legs and a long tail that continues the line of the spine. The head is carried high and boldly, and the eyes are almond-shaped and expressive. The ears are dropped and of moderate length.
Grooming the Dachshund depends upon the coat type. The smooth coat is easy to groom; it should be brushed twice weekly with a soft bristle brush or curry comb. The longhaired coat needs a little more work, as the feathers can get tangled. Every other day the coat should be brushed and combed. The wirehaired coat should be brushed twice weekly, and several times a year it needs stripping to remove dead hairs. If you don't know how to strip the coat, talk to your breeder or call a professional groomer.
Don't let the short legs fool you; these hunting dogs are athletes and need daily exercise. They need a good walk morning and evening, a chance to play ball, and a chance to run around the yard looking for squirrels. Because of their long backs and the potential for injury, exercise should not include any jumping onto, off of, or over high obstacles or leaping to catch a ball or flying disc.
Dachshunds are very devoted to their families and quite wary of strangers. It's important that Dachshund puppies attend a puppy class where socialization is incorporated into the lesson plans. Dachshunds can also be barkers; a training class begun when the dogs are young can help prevent or control this tendency. Dachshunds can be good with children who are not overly rough. Interactions with small pets should be supervised; after all, Dachshunds are still tenacious hunters. Health concerns include back problems, knee problems, and obesity.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Hunter, companion Size: No height standards Mini: under 11 lbs Standard: 16 to 32 lbs Longevity: 12 to 14 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Challenge Grooming: Easy to moderate, depending on coat type
^^e origin of the Dalmatian is shrouded in mystery. Although most experts agree that the name comes from the Eastern European region of Dalmatia, it's not known whether the breed originated there or not. Spotted dogs with a similarity to today's breed were painted on tomb walls in Egypt, portrayed running after chariots, and a fresco painted around 1360 in Italy shows a spotted dog. Later, spotted dogs accompanied the Romany gypsies as they traveled throughout Europe. During the 18th century, the breed was introduced to England, where it developed a reputation as a natural coach dog. The breed's affinity for horses, ability to keep up with them, and willingness to protect the horses, carriage, and passengers gained the Dalmation an enthusiastic following. It was in England, too, where Dalmatians were first used as mascots at fire stations, first running with the horses and later riding on the firetrucks.
The Dalmatian today is a medium-sized to large dog, muscular and strong, with the appearance of an athlete, standing 19 to 23 inches tall and weighing between 45 and 60 pounds. The recognizable coat is pure white with either black or liver-colored spots. The spots can range from the size of a dime to the size of a half dollar. The Dalmatian's expression is alert and intelligent. She has dropped ears, round dark eyes, and a long tapered tail.
Even though they have fine, short coats, Dalmatians do shed—not a lot, but a little year-round. Brushing the coat with a soft bristle brush or curry comb will reduce the hair in the house.
Exercising the Dalmatian is a very important part of caring for this breed. Bred to run with carriage horses, fire wagons, or gypsy wagons, this breed must get in a good hard run every day. A walk, even a vigorous one, is not enough. A daily brisk run alongside a bicycle or a run with a horse, if you happen to own one, will keep a Dalmatian happy. If a Dalmatian doesn't get enough exercise, she will find something to amuse herself, and that could very easily be destructive to your house or yard.
Early training is important. Although Dalmatians are intelligent and enthusiastic, they can also be independent and stubborn. The trainer will need to find something that catches the dog's interest to keep her motivated and attentive. Socialization is also necessary, as Dalmatians are wary of strangers. Many dogs of this breed have enjoyed advanced training and performance sports. Dals do great in agility and flyball. Many serve as excellent volunteer therapy dogs.
Because Dalmatians are active dogs and are sometimes quite exuberant, they can be too rowdy for very young children. However, once the kids are big enough to play with the dogs, Dalmatians are great companions, never getting tired or bored of the kids' games and adventures.
This breed has some special health concerns. The Dalmatian Club of America estimates that about 8 percent of Dalmatians are totally deaf and about 22 percent are deaf in one ear. The breed also has a problem with urinary stones.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Carriage horse, companion Size: 19 to 23 in tall; 45 to 60 lbs
Longevity: 11 to 14 years Exercise: Vigorous daily exercise; needs to run Training: Bright; hard to motivate; a challenge to train Grooming: Easy
rn«, aige (at right) is a Goldendoodle. She is tall, the height of a standard Poodle. She is wavy-coated, with dropped ears, a bearded face, and a wiggling body. She is cute, charming, and quite appealing. But what is she, really? It depends on who you talk to. To purebred dog fanciers, Paige is a mixed-breed dog, a cross between a Poodle and a Golden Retriever. To the breeders of these dogs and their owners, Paige is a designer dog: a whole new world in dogdom!
Designer dogs are produced by a purposeful crossing of two unrelated breeds. Although mixed-breed dogs have been around as long as there have been dog breeds, and Cockapoos (the first designer breed) have been around for more than thirty years, the designer dog era probably began with the Labradoodle in Australia. In 1989, John Grosling, manager for the GDAV Guide Dog Services, bred a litter in response to a request from a vision-impaired woman whose husband was allergic to dogs. A Poodle and a Labrador Retriever were bred and produced three puppies, one of which became her guide dog, and luckily her husband was able to tolerate him.
Other breedings between Labrador Retrievers and Poodles have occurred since then in both Australia and the U.S., and the results have varied tremendously. Some of the resulting dogs shed (like the Lab), and others are nonshedding like Poodles. Some are allergy friendly, while others are not. Sizes vary, too, as the Poodle is sometimes a standard and sometimes a miniature.
The success of the Cockapoo, Labradoodle, and the more recent Goldendoodle has led to a number of different designer dogs. There are Puggles, which are a cross between Pugs and Beagles. Roodles are Standard Poodles crossed with Rottweilers. Maltepoos are Maltese and Toy Poodles;
Schnoodles are Miniature Schnauzers and Miniature Poodles; and Pugapoos are, obviously, Pugs and Poodles. The prices asked (and paid) for some of these dogs have been higher than many people pay for purebred dogs with registration papers, pedigrees, and guarantees.
The temperaments, personalities, behavior, and trainability of designer dogs vary tremendously. The offspring will have a tendency to have some of the traits of each parent, but as with all mixed breeds, that can be unpredictable. Paige, for example, has many of the friendly, extroverted characteristics of a Golden Retriever but is sensitive and intelligent—traits common to Poodles.
Breeders of designer dogs have been promoting their benefits, one of which is their hybrid vigor. Breeders say that designer dogs do not have the health problems of purebreds, but that isn't necessarily so. The offspring of any breeding will be genetically healthy or not depending upon their parents' (and grandparents') genetic health. Labradoodle owners have found many of the same health concerns as those found in both Labs and Poodles, including a tendency toward ear infections, allergies, and hip dysplasia. Designer dogs have their enthusiasts, and that's wonderful as long as their owners know exactly what they are getting and are not expecting something entirely different.
x / oberman Pinschers were created by Louis Dobermann, of Apolda, Germany, in the 1890s.
Dobermann wanted a medium-sized dog who could be a companion dog and yet still serve as a guard dog. It is believed that Dobermann used German Pinschers, Rottweilers, a black and tan Manchester Terrier, and a shorthaired shepherd to create his new breed. Some experts believe that there might also be some Greyhound mixed in. No matter what the ancestry, Louis Dobermann created a versatile working dog who has served ably in many capacities. The U.S. Marine Corps has used many breeds, including the Doberman. In World War II, dogs were
integral to the success of so many operations that a war dog platoon was required to serve with every Marine Corps division. A life-sized bronze statue of a Doberman stands in Guam, labeled "Always Faithful," in honor of the many war dogs who served and died there.
The Doberman Pinscher today is a medium-sized dog who stands tall and carries herself proudly, making her look larger than she actually is. Dobies stand between 24 and 28 inches tall and usually weigh between 60 and 85 pounds, with females smaller than males. The head is wedge-shaped, the eyes almond-shaped and expressive, and the neck well-arched so that the head is carried proudly. For the show ring in the U.S., the ears are cropped, although today many people retain the natural ears, which are folded. The Doberman's chest is broad, back is straight, and tail is docked. The coat is smooth, short, hard, and thick. The Doberman can be black, red, blue, or fawn; all four colors will have rust marking above the eyes, on the muzzle, throat, forechest, and all four legs, and below the tail.
Grooming the short coat is easy; brush it twice a week with a soft bristle brush or curry comb. During spring and fall, when shedding is at its worst, daily brushing will help keep hair in the house to a minimum.
Dobies need exercise, and a walk is certainly not enough. A run alongside a bicycle will be better, as will a vigorous game of catching a tennis ball or a good workout on the agility course. Vigorous daily exercise is needed to keep her fit and to prevent problem behaviors that will crop up when she's bored.
Although Dobies today are much softer that those of years past, they are still excellent watchdogs and protectors. It's very important that puppies attend a puppy class where socialization is emphasized, especially to a variety of people. An over-protected and undersocialized Dobie can be worried and fearful, neither a good trait for this proud breed. Training should begin young, too, not just to teach household rules and social manners—although both are important—but also to keep that intelligent, inquisitive mind busy! The breed thrives on canine sports.
Doberman Pinschers are dedicated, loyal companions, excellent with people of all ages, although puppies can be rowdy and need to be taught not to play roughly with children. They can be good with other pets and, when taught not to chase, with the family cat. They can be aggressive toward unknown dogs. Health concerns include cardiomyopathy, wobbler's syndrome, and von Willebrand's disease.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Guard dog, mili tary dog, companion, performance sports Size: 24 to 28 in tall; 60 to 85 lbs
Longevity: 10 to 12 years Exercise: Vigorous daily exercise Training: Easy; hard to keep challenged Grooming: Easy
Early socialization and kept fun and gamelike, as r to
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC FSS, UKC Occupation: Hunter, guardian Size: 23.5 to 27 in tall; 85
100+ lbs Longevity: 10 to 15 years Exercise: Daily Training: Needs an experienced owner/trainer Grooming: Easy he Dogo Argentino, or Argentinian Mastiff, is the only native breed from Argentina. The breed was created by Dr. Antonio Martinez in the early 1900s when he crossed several breeds with the old fighting dogs from Cordoba. He was looking for a strong, vigorous, balanced athlete who could be both a hunting companion and a fighter.
This is a large dog, standing between 23.5 and 27 inches tall and weighing from 85 to 100 pounds or more. The head is broad, the muzzle short, and the ears either cropped or left natural. The chest is deep and broad and the body strong. The coat is white and short.
Grooming this breed is easy and consists of a twice weekly brushing with a soft bristled brush or curry comb.
Breed expert Tim Parr says, "This is an active breed that needs daily exercise. Consider that on hunts, the dog may cover ten to twelve miles." Daily exercise can consist of walks plus runs alongside a bicycle, agility training, hunting, or weight pulling. All off-leash exercise must be in a fenced area, as the dog will forget all training if a prey animal is sighted or scented. training are very important for this breed. Parr says, "Training must be Dogos tend to be sensitive to corrections from their owner. They usually respond well to a sharp verbal correction when needed." Because they are natural guard dogs, Parr says, "Dogos need extensive socialization in order to develop a sense of judgment as to who is a threat and who is not."
This breed should never be kept just as a family pet. This is a dedicated, loyal working dog with all her hunting and working instincts still intact. Dogos require experienced dog owners who will work with them on a daily basis. Some Dogos are very patient with children, while others may not be. The breed is dog-aggressive, and Parr says two Dogos of the same sex should never be housed together. Health concerns include deafness, hip dysplasia, immune system problems, and heart problems.
he Dogo Canario (also known as the Presa Canario, Perro de Presa Canario, or Canary Dog) was developed in the Canary Islands and is a descendant of Mastiffs brought to the islands by Spanish explorers. The dogs were used to control and herd cattle and to protect farms, businesses, and property. During the years since the explorers, the Mastiffs were mixed with other breeds and at times were also used for blood sports. After the prohibition of blood sports, the breed almost disappeared, but in the 1970s and 1980s fanciers banded together and saved it.
The breed stands 22 to 25.5 inches tall and weighs 90 to 115 pounds. The body is slightly longer than the dog is tall at the shoulder. The head is broad with a short muzzle. The ears can be cropped or left dropped. The chest is wide, the body strong, and the tail saberlike.
The coat is short, and there is no undercoat. These dogs are fawn with a dark mask or brindle. The coat needs twice weekly brushing with a soft bristle brush or curry comb.
This breed needs moderate exercise. A walk morning and evening and a playtime in between will satisfy most, although puppies can be more active. Ewa Ziemska, a breed expert from Poland, says, "This is a very serious breed. It will play, but in most situations it prefers to watch its territory."
This is a watchful and protective breed. Early socialization is very important so the dog learns to live in her world. Training is very important, too, as this highly intelligent breed needs a job to do. She needs firm, structured, yet fun training.
Ziemska says, "This breed will always protect its owner, even to the point of putting itself at risk." The breed, therefore, needs an experienced owner who can train and control the dog. Dogos Canarios are good with the children they've been raised with but may not understand or tolerate rough play with other children. They may not be good with other dogs or small pets. Health concerns include hip and elbow dysplasia and eyelid and knee problems.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC FSS, UKC Occupation: Guardian Size: 22 to 25.5 in tall; 90 to
115 lbs Longevity: 10 to 12 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Moderate Grooming: Easy
Dogo Canario 221
ogue de Bordeaux
he Dogue de Bordeaux an ancient breed whose history is more legend than fact, as written records are nonexistent. What is known, however, is that these early dogs were incredibly versatile. At various times during their early history, they were used as protectors of homes and businesses, as guardians for livestock, and as herding dogs. They also hunted and were prized for their ability to hunt boars. They were fighters, too, and were used to bait bears, bulls, and big cats.
The Dogue was popular in France in the mid- to late 1800s. There were three varieties: the Toulouse, the Paris, and the Bordeaux. The modern Dogue has the genetics of all three types, but most experts feel that today's Dogues are primarily Bordeaux. During the French Revolution, the breed almost disappeared, as it was associated with royalty and the wealthy.
Dogues de Bordeaux were virtually unknown in the United States until 1986, when Touchstone movies released the movie Turner and Hooch. The co-star, "Beasley," was a handsome red Dogue de Bordeaux who drooled copiously in the movie and destroyed everything he touched.
Today's Dogue de Bordeaux is a very large, Mastiff-type breed standing between 22.5 and 26.5 inches tall and weighing 90 to more than 100 pounds. The head is very broad, with a short muzzle and small dropped ears, and the expression always appears to be scowling due to facial wrinkles. The chest is wide and deep, the body is strong, and the legs sturdy. The tail is long. The coat is short and smooth and can be any shade of red or fawn.
This breed's coat is easy to care for and requires brushing once or twice a week. Dogs with deep wrinkles on the face will need those wrinkles cleaned regularly.
The Dogue is not a high-activity breed but does need regular exercise. Many, especially puppies, can be quite playful, although adults are calmer and more dignified. This breed can run but is not a long-distance runner; instead, they do well at activities where they can use their strength, including carting and weight pulling.
Early socialization is very important, as this is a watchful, protective breed. Training should begin during puppyhood so that the Dogue grows up understanding household rules and social manners and is well-versed in basic obedience skills. This is a powerful dog who can, if she wishes to, overpower her owner. Although normally calm, affectionate toward her people, and quiet, the Dogue is also naturally watchful, protective, and powerful, so she needs an owner who is in complete control; training can help achieve that.
These dogs need experienced owners, as they can be quite dominant and pushy and will take advantage of an inexperienced or passive owner. They are good with children when raised with them. They may not, however, be good with strange children and may interfere if the kids' play gets too rough. They are often dog-aggressive. The breed does drool and can drool a lot, especially when the dog is anticipating a treat or meal. Health concerns include breathing problems, bloat, torsion, thyroid problems, mange, and hip dysplasia.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC FSS, UKC Occupation: Versatile work-
to 100+ lbs Longevity: 10 to 12 years Exercise: Low to moderate Training: Vitally important Grooming: Easy
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