he Saluki may be one of the oldest breeds of dogs still in existence. Excavations of the Sumerian empire, dating back to 7000 B.C., found carvings of dogs looking much like today's Salukis, with both smooth and feathered coats.
Salukis are hunting sighthounds and have bodies built for speed and agility. Males stand 23 to 28 inches and weigh 40 to 60 pounds. Females are smaller. Salukis have a long narrow head, large eyes, and dropped ears. The tail is long and carried in a curve. The feathered coat
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Hunter Size: Males 23 to 28 in tall; 40 to 60 lbs (females smaller) Longevity: 13 to 15 years Exercise: Loves to run! Training: Challenge Grooming: Easy has long silky hair on the ears, back of legs, thighs, and tail, while the rest of the body has a smooth, soft coat. The smooth coat dogs have a soft, short coat with no feathering. Colors include white, cream, gold, red, and black and tan.
Grooming this breed requires weekly brushing with a soft bristle brush for the coat and twice weekly combing of the feathers.
Although Salukis are calm in the house, they were bred to run and still enjoy a chance to run at full steam. Watching Salukis run is like watching birds fly; they are graceful, powerful, and awesome! However, all exercise should be within a fenced-in yard or on leash. This breed retains its natural hunting instincts, and if a rabbit or squirrel is spotted, these dogs will be off in a flash. Young Salukis can be destructive if they don't get enough exercise.
Salukis were not bred to take orders; they have been hunters for thousands of years. Training, therefore, can be a challenge. Training should be upbeat, fun, and varied—not repetitive— and the owner must be patient. This breed will never be as obedient as most of the herding and working breeds are.
Salukis may not be the stars of the obedience world, but they are very loving and affectionate. Many owners consider them addictive! They can be wonderful family dogs but should be supervised with smaller pets. Health concerns include a sensitivity to anesthesia, thyroid problems, heart problems, and cancer.
his is an ancient breed who has lived with the Samoyede people of Siberia for more years than can be counted. To these people, the Samoyed is much more than just a dog; she is in reality a partner, for they could not survive without their dogs' assistance. The beautiful white dogs herd the reindeer, hunt, and pull sleds. In addition, they sleep in the reindeer hide tents with their owners, providing extra warmth during the long Siberian winters. The breed has also been used as a reliable sled dog outside of Siberia. Samoyeds were on sled dog teams exploring both the north and south poles, and were treasured for their strength, reliability, and willingness to work.
The Samoyed today is still a working dog and should present a picture of both beauty and strength. This breed stands 19 to 23.5 inches tall and weighs 40 to 70 pounds, with the females smaller than the males. The Samoyed's smiling face is a treasure, with dark, intelligent eyes and upright ears; the dogs always look happy. The Samoyed is well-balanced with a body long enough to do draft work and legs long enough to run. The coat has a thick undercoat of soft, dense wool and a longer outer coat of harsh hair that stands out from the body, creating a fluffy look. The coat can be white, cream, or biscuit.
Grooming the Samoyed takes some time and effort. The coat can mat and must be brushed at least twice a week during most of the year. However, when the dog is shedding (usually spring and fall), she should be brushed daily.
These dogs need daily aerobic exercise. Bred to be multipurpose working dogs, they can be mischievous without enough exercise. In addition, obesity can be a problem. Samoyeds like to jog, run alongside a bicycle, and participate in dog sports. Pulling a sled or wagon is a natural job for them, of course, but they also enjoy weight pulling, skijoring, and pack hiking. The breed also loves games, and many owners swear their dog has a sense of humor.
The Samoyed Club of America, Inc., recommends training for all Samoyeds, "Elementary obedience training will make your dog a good citizen and the best possible companion. Additionally, the time you spend with your dog will create a close bond between the two of you." Although training the Samoyed is not usually difficult—they are bright dogs who usually want to please you—they can also be independent thinkers. The owner must keep the training structured yet fun.
Samoyeds are great family dogs for those who understand the care that the beautiful coat needs and those who want a white canine shadow. Samoyeds who are isolated too much will get into trouble. They can be barkers, much to the dismay of neighbors, so this should be addressed early before it becomes a problem. The breed is good with people of all ages. Although friendly and affectionate with everyone in the family, they often single out one family member and bond more strongly to that person. Samoyeds are usually very good with other dogs and other pets. Health concerns include hip dysplasia, bloat, torsion, hypothyroidism, and eye disorders.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Herder, hunter, sled dog, companion Size: 19 to 23.5 in tall; 40 to 70 lbs
Longevity: 11 to 13 years Exercise: Daily aerobic exercise Training: Easy to moderate Grooming: Moderate; lots of brushing
/ he Schapendoes is a Dutch sheepdog but should not be confused with the Dutch Shepherd, a very different breed. The Schapendoes is a drover and was used to move the sheep from the farm to pasture and back again. Breed experts say the breed is related to the Puli, the Briard, and perhaps the Bearded Collie.
These dogs stand between 15 and 19-5 inches tall and weigh 30 to 40 pounds. They are lightly built and should never be heavy and cumbersome. The skull is broad, the muzzle is short, the eyes are large and brown, and the ears are dropped. The body is slightly longer than the dog is tall at the shoulder. The tail is long. The undercoat is thick and the outer coat is long and wavy. The face is coated and has a topknot, mustache, and beard- All colors are permitted.
The coat requires twice weekly brushing to prevent matting. These dogs love to play, and additional grooming is needed when they get wet or pick up dirt, debris, or grass seeds in their coats.
Breed expert Lorie Godin says, "These dogs are calm in the house and will adapt to a wide variety of lifestyles. However, they require a good walk and time for play each day." She adds that the breed is not hyper or high-strung although they are active dogs. They love to play and have a delightful sense of humor.
Training can help challenge this breed's clever mind, and during the training the breed is easily motivated by food. Godin adds, however, "The breed can be stubborn at times or can be distracted by more interesting alternatives to the training." The training needs to be varied and fun. Although socialization is always important, this is not a guardian breed. They will announce arrivals to their home but are not aggressive.
Schapendoes need an owner who enjoys having a canine shadow; these are companion dogs. The owner should also enjoy grooming the dog. The breed is great with children, is not at all dog-aggressive, and is also good with other pets. The primary health concern is hip dysplasia.
Breed in Brief
Registries: UKC, CKC Occupation: Herder, companion Size: 15 to 19.5 in tall; 30 to 40 lbs
Longevity: 12 to 14 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Moderate Grooming: Moderate to difficult
lthough many people assume that this is a Dutch breed, it is really a descendant of a Belgian black sheepdog, the Leauvenaar. The Schipperke was bred to be a smaller dog than the sheepdog, and although it has been a distinct breed for several hundred years, it wasn't known as the Schipperke until the late 1800s.
These small dogs stand between 10 and 13 inches tall and usually weigh 8 to 14 pounds. The head is foxlike, the eyes are oval and dark, and the ears are upright. The body is square in profile, with a broad, deep chest and no tail. The undercoat is soft and dense. The outer coat is short on the face and the front of the legs, medium length on the body, and longer on the ruff and the back of the legs. The coat is always black. The coat is easy to care for and needs only weekly brushing. When the dog sheds heavily, usually in the spring and fall, more brushing may be needed.
This is an active dog who enjoys brisk walks, daily playtimes, a run on the agility course, and a chance to play ball. Many Schipperkes have done very well in agility, flyball, and obedience competitions.
Early socialization is important, as this is a very watchful breed. The Schipperke is wary of strangers and doesn't realize she is small; she's ready to protect her family if the need arises. Under-socialized dogs can be overly cautious and fearful. Training can help occupy this very intelligent breed's mind. The training should be structured and firm, yet fun and positive, and should continue into adulthood.
Although this breed is small, it is not a toy breed. Schipperkes retain much of their herding dog heritage and are intelligent, watchful, trainable, and at times, challenging. They need an owner who is willing to be a leader and will not spoil the dog; a spoiled Schipperke can be a tyrant. The breed is great with children who treat the dog with respect. The primary health concerns are Legg-Perthe's disease and thyroid problems.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Herder, hunter, companion Size: 10 to 13 in tall; 8 to 14 lbs
Longevity: 14 to 16 years Exercise: Moderate to active Training: Moderate; hard to keep challenged Grooming: Easy; sheds
he Scottish Deerhound is an ancient breed, although its origins are lost in history. However, the breed has been known as Deerhound since the 16th century. During their history, these dogs were prized for their hunting abilities as well as their character. In the age of chivalry, only those people holding a rank of earl or higher could own Deerhounds.
These are tall dogs, standing 28 to 32 inches tall and weighing 80 to 100 pounds. They are powerful dogs with narrow heads, dark eyes, and small ears. The chest is deep and the tail is long. The medium-length coat is wiry, and they have mustaches and beards. The coat is usually dark blue—gray but may also be fawn or red. The coat needs to be brushed and combed at least twice a week. Most owners like to trim the hair on the face to keep the dog neat. Dogs being shown will need hand-stripping on the face rather than scissoring.
Two walks a day is great for these dogs, but Deerhounds also need a chance to run. Young dogs will need a daily run; adults will settle for several runs a week. Make sure the dog runs in a securely fenced-in yard, as this breed was bred to hunt; if a critter is flushed during a run, the dog will take off.
The Deerhound has a wonderful temperament. Although she loves a good run, she is usually calm and amiable in the house. She loves a soft place to snooze. Training should be light and fun without too much repetition. Don't expect her to be as responsive to training as many other breeds; she may not bring back thrown toys and she will respond to commands when it pleases her.
This breed is reserved with strangers but cannot be considered a watchdog. She is great with children and other dogs in the family. She may chase strange dogs, and she should not be trusted with small pets who may run from her. She has a short life span, living only 8 to 10 years. Health concerns include bloat, torsion, heart problems, dwarfism, and anesthesia sensitivities.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC Occupation: Hunter Size: 28 to 32 in tall; 80 to
100 lbs Longevity: 8 to 10 years Exercise: Daily run Training: Challenge Grooming: Easy
Scottish Deerhound 349
he Scottish Terrier originated in the Highlands of Great Britain, where she was valued as a very effective fox and vermin hunter. Many breed experts feel the Scottie was a parent breed to many terrier breeds developed later.
The Scottie stands 10 inches tall and weighs 18 to 22 pounds. The breed is compact and sturdy. Their heads are long, eyes are small and almond-shaped, and ears are small and upright, never cropped. The body is slightly longer than tall. The tail is about 7 inches long and not docked. The coat is hard and wiry. There is longer coat above the eyes and on the beard, legs, chest, and belly. Coat colors include black, brindle, and wheaten.
The coat should be brushed several times a week to keep it clean and to prevent tangles and mats. The Scottie's coat needs grooming every six to eight weeks. Show dogs need to have their coat hand-stripped, while pet dogs are often clipped. Potential owners should discuss the breed's grooming requirements with a breeder.
Scottie puppies are full of fun and will play whenever they are not napping or eating. Adults are calmer and more dignified but never lose their sense of fun. A daily walk and a chance to play in the backyard will satisfy this breed's exercise needs.
Scotties are intelligent but can also be independent and stubborn. Training an independent spirit requires patience and consistency. The training should also be firm but fun. Training should never be harsh; this breed will either turn off or fight back when faced with harsh training.
This breed needs an owner who understands terriers. Scotties are companion dogs and although they like to play outside, they prefer to spend most of their time inside with their owners. They are good with children but will not tolerate rough play. They can be dog-aggressive. They are usually fine with cats. Health concerns include von Willebrand disease, Scottie Cramp, allergies, thyroid problems, cancer, and liver shunt.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Vermin hunter, companion Size: 10 in tall; 18 to 22 lbs Longevity: 12 to 14 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Moderate Grooming: Difficult
ealyham Terrier he Sealyham Terrier was the creation of retired Army officer John Edwards of Sealy Ham, Haverfordwest, Wales, in the mid- to late 1800s. Edwards wanted a bold, game little terrier who could dispatch the badgers and otters found in the region. Unfortunately, records were not kept as to the breed's ancestry; Edwards was more concerned with the dogs' abilities to hunt.
These small terriers stand about 10.5 inches tall and weigh 20 to 24 pounds. The head is long and broad, the eyes are medium-sized and very dark, and the ears are folded. The body is strong, the chest deep, and the tail docked. The undercoat is dense and the outer coat is hard and wiry. The dogs are white but may have lemon, tan, or badger markings on the head.
The coat needs twice weekly brushing to keep it clean and to prevent tangles and mats. The hair needs trimming every six to eight weeks. Show dogs must be hand-stripped, while most pet owners have their dogs clipped. Potential owners should discuss the breed's grooming needs with a breeder.
The Sealyham Terrier is a moderately active terrier. When she plays, she puts her all into it but when not playing, she's willing to relax and be quiet. This breed enjoys long, brisk walks and a chance to hunt for small animals in the wood pile. Sealyhams also have a sense of humor, and making their owners laugh is one of their joys.
This dog is a very good watchdog, with protective instincts and a bark that sounds like it comes from a much larger dog. Because they are so watchful, socialization is very important for Sealyham puppies. Training this breed can be a challenge. They are bright but can also be stubborn. Owners need to find out what motivates their dog and then use that to build compliance.
This breed needs an owner with a sense of humor who can laugh at terrier antics. They are patient with children who treat them with respect and do not play too rough. Health concerns include eye problems and allergies.
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Hunter, companion Size: 10.5 in tall; 20 to 24 lbs Longevity: 14 to 16 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Challenge Grooming: Difficult
he Shetland Sheepdog (or Sheltie) is an old breed, probably derived from the ancestors of the rough Collie. These dogs were brought to the Shetland Islands of Great Britain, where the tough conditions favored smaller livestock (smaller sheep and ponies instead of horses). Smaller herding dogs just made sense, too, both to work the smaller livestock and because smaller dogs required less food. Because the dogs on the islands were isolated, they were able to breed true quickly, and the breed came to be.
Shelties today are very much a smaller version of the rough Collie. They stand between 13 and 16 inches tall and weigh 18 to 25 pounds (many pets are larger). The Sheltie's head is wedge-shaped,
with dark almond-shaped eyes and small ears that are three-quarters erect, with just the tips folded over. The body is longer than tall, the chest deep, and the legs strong. The undercoat is short and dense, while the outer coat is long and straight, standing out from the body. The mane is full, the legs are feathered, and the tail is plumed. Colors include sable in all its shades, blue merle, and black. White and tan markings are acceptable.
The Sheltie's profuse coat can shed, and shed quite impressively. Although the worst of shedding is usually in the spring and fall, there is some hair loss year-round. The coat should be brushed at least twice a week normally and daily during the shedding seasons.
Nancy Mueller, a lifelong Sheltie owner, says of the breed's exercise needs, "Shelties can get along with limited exercise, but do best when walked and played with daily. If they get the exercise they need, they seem less likely to develop habits you won't like." Shelties thrive in many canine sports, including agility, obedience competitions, herding trials, and flying disc competitions.
Socialization is very important for all Shelties. They are naturally wary of strangers and quite reserved to everyone except their families. Early socialization can help them recognize that not everyone is a danger. Training is also very important, not just to teach household rules but because the breed is very intelligent and thrives with training. Mueller says, "Shelties love training, are quick to catch on, and are quite proud of themselves when they learn something." Of course, Shelties are also smart enough to figure out when they can get away with bad behavior, too!
Shelties are very much people dogs. They thrive when allowed to live with people, underfoot, and are able to shadow their people. They can be quite good with children, although the kids need to be taught to respect the dog and be gentle. Many children get frustrated when the dog tries to herd (circle) them. Shelties are also good with other pets, but again, many cats detest being herded! Shelties are prone to one behavior that can cause problems with neighbors: Mueller says, "Breeders say Shelties talk a lot. That's a euphemism for they bark a lot! Big trucks, joggers, brooms, hummingbirds at the feeder—everything deserves comment in the Sheltie's mind. Don't get one if you have neighbors who detest barking dogs." Health concerns include autoimmune disorders, allergies, and knee, skin, and eye problems. Many are sensitive to ivermectin, a heartworm preventative.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Herder, companion, performance sports
Longevity: 14 to 16 years Exercise: Active; more is better Training: Easy; hard to keep challenged Grooming: Lots of brushing
Shetland Sheepdog 353
he Shiba Inu is the smallest of Japan's native dogs and for centuries was a hardy, capable hunter in the mountainous terrain of that island. Although World War II almost caused the breed to become extinct, dogs from many remote communities were added to a breeding program, which eventually created the breed as it is known today.
The Shiba Inu stands 13.5 to 16.5 inches tall and weighs 15 to 28 pounds. The breed is spitzlike in appearance, with a foxy face, dark eyes, and upright ears. The body is slightly longer than tall, and the tail is long and carried over the back. The dog has a soft, dense undercoat. The outer coat is fine and can be fawn, brindle, or brindle and white.
This breed needs twice weekly brushing for most of the year. However, in the spring and fall when shedding is at its worst, daily brushing might be needed.
Although Shibas are not a high-activity breed, they do enjoy long, brisk, daily walks. The walks are also great socialization opportunities, which Shibas need, as they can be watchful and wary of strangers. This breed is also playful, and if you don't play with them, they will find ways to amuse themselves. Puppies can be destructive.
Training, to a Shiba, means the dog's ability to train her owner, something this breed is very good at. However, it is important that Shiba owners establish some control, so training should begin when the dog is young and continue through young adulthood. Training should be structured yet fun. Training a Shiba has been compared to training a cat; patience and good motivators are the keys to success.
The Shiba Inu may be too much for a first-time pet owner, although many cat owners think a Shiba is an excellent choice for their first dog. The Shiba is great with children who treat her gently and with respect; she will not tolerate rough handling. She may also be dog-aggressive. Health concerns include eye defects, luxating patellas, and allergies.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Hunting, companion Size: 13.5 to 16.5 in tall; 15
to 28 lbs Longevity: 14 to 16 years Exercise: Moderate Training: Challenge Grooming: Easy; sheds
s with so many old breeds, the ' Shih Tzu's history has been highly debated. What is known is that the breed was revered during the Tang and Ming dynasties in China, and breedings were carefully planned. The breed was solely a companion dog; it was never a hunter or a guardian.
This toy breed stands between 8 and 11 inches tall and weighs 9 to 16 pounds. The head is round and broad, the eyes are large and very dark, and the ears are large and dropped. The body is compact and sturdy, with a tail carried in a curve over the back. The undercoat is soft, and the outer coat is long and flowing. All colors are permitted. The American Shih Tzu Club says there is only one size and no such thing as an imperial or tea cup; those are simply ploys to sell dogs.
This breed's coat requires time and effort to keep it looking good. Show dogs may have hair that reaches and drags on the ground, but most pet owners keep the hair trimmed. Daily brushing and combing is needed, even if the hair is trimmed, because the coat can easily tangle and mat.
The Shih Tzu is a happy, playful breed. They will enjoy daily walks and a play session or two during the day but are not high-energy dogs. Although not demanding of exercise, daily exercise is important, as this breed can become fat with too many snacks and not enough exercise.
Housetraining Shih Tzu can sometimes be a challenge. Owners should be patient, follow a schedule, and supervise the puppy. Although training is not as important with this breed as with so many others, Shih Tzu do thrive in a training program that is fun. Shih Tzu are also easily spoiled, so training can help prevent bad behaviors.
This breed was bred to be a companion, plain and simple. These dogs love people and are friendly and affectionate. The breed is also great with children, as long as the kids are not too rough. They are fine with other dogs and with smaller pets. Health concerns include allergies and eye and kidney problems.
Breed in Brief
Registries: AKC, UKC, CKC Occupation: Companion Size: 8 to 11 in tall; 9 to 16 lbs Longevity: 14 to 16 years Exercise: Low activity level Training: Challenge to housetrain Grooming: Difficult
Shih Tzu 355
Was this article helpful?
Fundamentals of Dog and Puppy Training. Although dogs shouldn't be attributed with having human characteristics, they are intelligent enough to be able to understand the concept of, and execute, certain actions that their owners require of them - if these actions are asked in a way that dogs find rewarding.