Dog Training Manuals
The purpose of the class is to show you what to do, have you try it a few times to make sure you've got it right, and then send you home to practice. Be prepared to practice at least five times a week. Most classes are sequential in nature. If you miss a class, you'll fall behind and may have a hard time catching up. Falling behind is discouraging and may cause you to drop out. When you go to a class, don't expect the instructor to train your dog. That isn't her job. To locate a class, look in the phonebook under a heading such as Pet & Dog Training to find out what your community offers. Chances are you'll have several choices.
Obedience training prevents a whole host of improper behavior and actions. Actions that are difficult to correct later on and may even prove to be dangerous for the family members. Many people think that obedience training is something that is done to a dog to make it perform some artificial activity on command. But, in reality, it simply means training dogs to be obedient, to obey anything and everything they're told to do. Dogs are social animals and without proper training, they will behave like animals. They will soil your house, destroy your belongings, bark excessively, dig holes in your yard, fight other dogs and even bite you. Obedience training is also an easy way to establish the social hierarchy. When your dog obeys a simple request of 'come here, sit,' she is showing compliance and respect for you. It is not necessary to establish yourself as top dog or leader of the pack by using extreme measures such as the so-called alpha rollover. You can teach your dog her...
Training your Labrador Retriever yourself is a good option. But if for some reason you are unable to do so, either due to scarcity of time or a very demanding work schedule, what is your next best option Well you can seek the services of a professional dog trainer. You have to be very careful about selecting a good dog trainer and so you must know what to look for in the person you select. We shall go through some of the qualities that the American Dog Trainers Network (ADTN) looks for in their affiliates.
For some people, becoming a professional dog trainer is a lifelong dream. For others, it's an excellent and rewarding part-time job. As I mentioned in Chapter 8, millions of dog owners find, sometimes to their surprise, that they genuinely enjoy training their dogs. They start off at the basic level and gradually teach their dogs to be more proficient in obedience. As they teach their dogs, they are learning
With this method we are going to be shaping behaviors. You need a way to signal to the dog that he is performing whatever behavior it is that you were trying to get. Initially he will also get a treat for each correct response but since that takes a few seconds (at least) to happen, the clicker marks the exact moment of response, essentially bridging the time between response & reward. This is classical conditioning, like Pavlov & his drooling dogs. You are going to take a clicker & pair it with a food reward until the click itself gets the dog all happy. So get yourself some clickers - little toy-like devices that make a fun click sound. If you prefer (or while you are waiting for your clicker to arrive), choose a bridge word instead. I suggest Yes - it is short & happy Say it briskly, in a rather high pitched, & very excited voice. I will be using the term C&T in the lessons, meaning to click & give a treat. If you are using a bridge word, just say it & give a treat whenever I have...
So when do you stop using the clicker for these exercises Whenever you feel that the dog has really learned the signals and is very reliable in responding to them. Does that mean at that point you never need to reinforce the behavior Certainly not Make an actual treat reward not as common. Instead, get the response,then praise enthusiastically, praise quietly, throw a ball, play tug 'o war, give his dinner, open the door to go outside -whatever. The best trainers are variable & unpredictable The dog never knows what he's gonna get or when that makes it all the more fun for him. If you don't believe me take a stroll past the slot machines in Las Vegas Next steps involve having you move around more, having mild distractions, etc Each time that you increase the difficulty by doing something like that, remember to back off on the difficulty of the other aspects - distance & time. Success breeds success When you are ready to phase out the clicker, then you will release your dog from the...
What happens if you don't use positive reinforcement to train your dog You'll have to rely more on force, which has many disadvantages. Not the least of these is that people dislike using force on their dogs. It is unfortunate that some dogs never get trained because owners who have been exposed to training based mainly on force, and don't like it, ultimately give up on dog training altogether, wrongly assuming that all training is done the same way. Their dogs are then doomed to live in a household where the owner cannot effectively communicate with them. The natural resistance of some dog owners to cause their dogs pain or discomfort is often looked upon by other dog trainers as a lack of character on the part of the new dog trainer. I'll never forget sitting at a seminar for dog obedience instructors and listening to the lecturer saying thankfully, Trainers become less squeamish as they go along. While using force to train a dog is necessary at times, no one should be forced to...
One of the best things you can do for your aggressive dog is to put him through obedience training. True, it's not a quick fix for all your doggie problems, but certainly it is the foundation for solving any canine problem. Besides, if you didn't know, training itself opens up a whole new channel of communication between you and your dog. By training your dog well you can instruct him to do whatever you want. Teach him to 'stay' or not rush out of the door to 'sit' or not jump on visitors to 'off or not chew the furniture and you've got yourself a very well trained dog One more advantage of obedience training is establishing social hierarchy with ease. If you teach your dog a simple command such as come here, by obeying you, he shows respect for you. You needn't establish yourself as the alpha leader by doing roll-over exercises with him, instead teach him to accept a subordinate position by teaching him to submit to you by shaking your hand (say to him, Paw, Goldie, ), roll over on...
Keller and Marian Breland created the foundation of the modern clicker training movement. In the mid-1940s, the Brelands were the first to apply clicker training to train dogs. The movement didn't, however, become popular until the early 1990s when Karen Pryor and Gary Wilkes teamed up and began to give seminars on clicker training. Pryor is a retired dolphin trainer and author of Don't Shoot the Dog The New Art of Teaching and Training (Bantam). Although Don't Shoot the Dog isn't a how-to training book, it provides some general rules based on the concepts of operant conditioning for influencing behavior. Meanwhile, Wilkes is an animal behaviorist and since 1987 the foremost practitioner and teacher of clicker training. (For more information about Wilkes and clicker training, go to www.clickandtreat.com.) Clicker training is based on the concepts of operant conditioning (see the section earlier in this chapter). The dog is first trained to associate the clicker sound with getting a...
A clicker is a little mechanical device that makes a clicking noise when you push it. It is becoming a popular tool for positive reinforcement training. Your dog is taught to associate the sound of the clicker with treats, and then the unique sound of the clicker clearly tells your dog when he is right. In technical terms, the clicker is a conditioned reinforcer, a sound previously meaningless to your dog that becomes meaningful when associated with food or some other reward. (Also see chapter 1, Other Rewards. ) Conditioned reinforcers are how dolphins and killer whales are trained, since a trainer This is a clicker. This is a clicker. can't be right beside them to reward them. A dolphin performs a behavior like jumping through a hoop. The conditioned reinforcer, perhaps a whistle, is given during the jump. Then, the dolphin swims to the side of the pool to get his fish. Conditioned reinforcers, like clickers, bridge the gap between the behavior and the delivery of the reward. When...
There is also a new training method called Clicker Training. It's the same method used to train dolphins and whales at Sea World. Whenever your dog does even a tiny part of the retrieving exercise correctly, you click a small metal plastic device between your thumb and forefinger (remember the old Jiminy Cricket clickers ) and then you quickly give a treat. You keep adding small parts of the exercise, clicking and treating for each successful part, until your dog puts it all together into a complete retrieve.
Training by conditioning relies on consistently patterned performances and responses without causing emotional responses like fear or pain. Conditioning requires repetition. Quality dog training involves conditioning. Expect to repeat yourself in order to create new behaviors. Compulsion. Compulsion is a scary word with many misconceptions. Compulsion does not mean force. We use compulsion in dog training all the time. When we place our dog in a SIT position, we are using compulsion. Physically requiring our dog to move or not move in any manner is compulsion. The key to keeping compulsion a useful training method is through making it a positive experience. You must never motivate your dog physically in a manner that is threatening, is intimidating, or causes the dog pain.
Every domesticated being has a natural control point. For the human, it is our arms (and hands). This is the reason why human control tools like the straightjacket and handcuffs are effective. The natural control point for the dog is the neck. For the activity of dog training we recommend a flat collar, leather slip collar, or prong collar. A popular tool for positive reinforce- ment is the clicker. The theory holds that with proper association of a food reward with the accompanying click, the dog can be conditioned to various responses. The click is administered in the same manner as vocal praise. When your dog performs the action you desire, click and treat.
A dog's ability to concentrate selectively on specific aspects of the environment and to exclude others is a faculty of tremendous importance for effective dog training and behavior modification. Historically, the study of attention was neglected due to a widely held belief that the scientific investigation of behavior ought to be restricted to the study of measurable units resulting from the interaction of external events (i.e., stimuli and responses). This general doctrine known as radical behaviorism rejected cognitive phenomena like attention as inaccessible and irrelevant to a scientific understanding of animal behavior. Radical behaviorists also rejected explanations that employed physiological hypotheses and constructs.
While I don't generally advocate using food for pet companion dog training (it takes WAY TOO LONG and is not necessary unless you're trying to pull additional points in a dog competition) it's often rewarding to be exposed to the tips and tricks used by professionals.competition dog trainers.
Stay away from the classes where you're told that Buddy is too young to learn obedience exercises. This type of organization shows a lack of knowledge of dog behavior. The majority of people who go on to advanced training start training their dogs in a beginner class. They then discover that the organization offers more advanced training as well as different activities. You may find, for example, that in addition to obedience training, the organization also trains agility, perhaps even tracking, and that some of the members have therapy dogs, and so on. You might get bitten by the training bug, and if you and Buddy enjoy what you're doing, go for it.
Remember that everything dogs do that we dislike - biting, barking, jumping up, eliminating inside, chewing, etc. - is totally normal dog behavior If we want our dogs to stop doing these things, then it is completely our responsibility to train him not to. No fair expecting him to know better or to learn to stop doing something so natural and fun just because he was caught & punished a few times. Often dogs can simply learn that they can't do those things in the presence of a human. Instead, make sure your dog gets plenty of exercise and has appropriate things to chew (real meaty bones from the butcher, Kongs or bones stuffed with treats are great ) If a problem behavior continues, then realize that the fault lies in your training and management (or lack thereof). So take the time to think about the behavior and think about what you can do the change things. Don't expect your dog to act like Lassie, because Lassie really never existed. She was just a well trained
Puppies will nip and mouth to communicate. Try to figure out what it is they are trying to communicate and meet that need. They may need interaction, a walk, or a nap. Mouthing to communicate only stops when a new communication channel is introduced. This channel is the obedience training language. Until obedience training, try to figure out what they are trying to communicate and resolve it don't punish it.
Started in the early 1990s as a way to bring some levity to obedience training, Freestyle has caught on like a house afire. Chances are you have seen it on one of the cable shows featuring dog activities. Freestyle is fun to watch and fun to train. For more information, see The World Canine Freestyle Organization's Web site at www.worldcaninefreestyle.org.
In all honesty, I don't use food very much simply because it is rarely needed to communicate what you want to your dog. A possible exception to this rule is in competition obedience training, when the food can be used to help the dog focus and target. But in general, if you are quick, direct, and to the point, you will be able to show your dog exactly what you want him to do, and will be praising him for doing the right thing before he even thinks about what approach you're using to put him in that position.
Tug games provide great exercise (for both of you) and can be played inside in a small area. Quick games of tug are great rewards for obedience training, too However, there are some very important rules which MUST be followed. If you don't, you may very well up with a dog that becomes unacceptably aggressive.
Okay, now start out with your dog sitting or standing at your side. Use a treat to lure him around to that position if needed. Let him see the treats you are holding in your hand.Say his name once to get his attention, then step off, praising happily. Take JUST 1-2 steps, then pause in mid stride to deliver a treat. (We no longer have people use the clicker for this in class - it was difficult for many people to coordinate everything, and we found that the dogs pick this up very easily without the clicker.) behavior where I actually don't use the clicker as it is easy enough for the dog to understand. Wondering where the clicker fits in Well, it's pretty difficult to use if you have treats in both hands. If you can manage it (or have an assistant to do the clicking), click the instant he quits trying for the Leave it treat & then offer the Get it treat with Get it This is actually a great example of when it sometimes good to use a Bridge Word ( Yes ) instead of a clicker.
Dogs perceive jumping on people as a friendly gesture, a dog's way of letting the object of his affection know how happy he is to see him or her. He's literally jumping for joy. You can train your dog to greet people in a less rambunctious fashion, but you don't want to punish your happy pet simply because he's glad to see you.
Startle devices like the shaker can are commonly used in dog training. Their purpose is to generate a startle effect immediately and directly associated with an unwanted behavior. For example, a common behavior complaint presented for modification is the habit of jumping on countertops in search of food. Since it is intermittently reinforced (sometimes with very large rewards), it can be a very persistent habit and resist suppression. One means of suppressing the tendency is to booby trap the countertop with a suspended shaker can or something else that causes a significant startle. Sometimes, forbidden items themselves are attached directly to the shaker can by a length of fishing line or dental floss. Dogs that attempt to steal a snack are very much startled by the resounding crash caused by their efforts.
A far more common form of chaining in everyday dog training is called forward chaining. Although forward chaining lacks the behavioral elegance of backward chaining, it does offer many valuable features and several distinct advantages. Forward chaining requires only that a series of responses be performed on cue for a single reward. The forward chain is built up by placing each response component on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement and randomizing its occurrence in the chain sequence. Such a strategy of intermittent reinforcement and randomization results in the development of a hoped-for expectancy occurring equally with each link in the chain a result that usually translates into a general strengthening of the chain, as well as immunizing component responses against extinction. It should be noted in the case of backward chaining that behaviors near the end of the chain are the most strongly reinforced, since they are the closest to the terminal reinforcer. In the case of...
THe AveRSIve control of behavior plays an important role in dog training and behavior modification. in many training situations and applications, aversive techniques are not only necessary but sometimes even preferable to the various positive reinforcement procedures discussed in the previous chapter. Unfortunately, aversive training methods are often inadequately understood or applied in cases where positive methods would suffice. Although avoidance learning and punishment appear simple on the surface, as one probes the processes involved, it quickly becomes evident that they are far from simple.
Hitting, punching, or kicking has no place in professional dog training and should be shunned both on technical as well as humane grounds. Corporal punishment is provocative and may elicit additional aggressive behavior and agonistic tensions, thereby compounding the situation. Such physical punishment may cause the hands or feet to be associated with fear and pain, thus resulting in an increased risk for defensive or preemptive biting whenever dogs are surprised by hands or feet moving quickly toward them. Although the individual delivering such punishment may intimidate a dog sufficiently to suppress immediate retaliation by the dog, other less imposing figures, like children or strangers, may become the victims of redirected aggression. Another significant side effect of interactive corporal punishment is that it may cause dogs to fear and avoid their owners. Although certain forms of interactive punishment may be necessary to establish control and dominance over some dogs, as a...
Processes and (4) melancholic, low activity, socially withdrawn and susceptible to neuroses involving inhibitory processes. Dogs with weak, unbalanced temperaments (choleric and melancholic) were found to be more easily stressed and at greater risk of developing learning and behavior disturbances than sanguine and phlegmatic dogs possessing balanced and flexible temperaments (Fig. 9.1). Pavlov believed that dogs were at an increased risk of developing neuroses during puberty and following castration (Windholz, 1994). Surprisingly, young puppies were found to be the least affected by adverse conditioning. Combining these basic temperament types with Eysenck's introversion (socially withdrawn, reserved, and passive) and extraversion (socially outgoing, impulsive, and active) dimensions (see Gray, 1971) produces a number of interactions of interest for understanding some aspects of dog behavior (Fig. 9.2). Traits on the upper half of Fig. 9.2 show signs of progressive neuroticism, with...
Sometimes a behavior that is unlikely to occur spontaneously will need to be trained in gradual steps. This sort of training is called shaping. Shaping is a process in which a selected behavior is obtained by differentially reinforcing successive approximations of it. Shaping involves breaking down the training objective or target behavior into more manageable and easily learned parts. Many otherwise difficult behaviors can be efficiently trained by carefully arranging these component parts of the target behavior according to a plan or program of instrumental shaping contingencies. Shaping has many applications in dog training. Almost any response or behavior pattern within a dog's behavioral capability can be shaped as long as a few basic rules are followed. An excellent introduction to shaping dog behavior through differential reinforcement of successive approximations is provided by B. F. Skinner (1951). r ) by pairing a stimulus (e.g., Good or clicker tone) with an unconditioned...
In dogs, many competing SSDRs occur during the early stages of obedience training. According to Bolles, The trick in the avoidance situation is to punish all of the wrong responses so that the right response will occur (1973 299). Dogs being trained with forceful methods typically react by systematically experimenting with various defensive postures and reactions that are prepotent to the dog as a species. These defensive behaviors range from bolting and jumping up, to dropping down and freezing balking and struggling to pull away, or biting the leash. Some dogs exhibit a wide variety of passive submissive displays or, in the opposite extreme, occasionally threaten or snap at the handler. The early stages of avoidance training (really punishment training) involve systematically suppressing these innate defensive reactions and replacing them with forcefully prompted alternatives. Only once all defensive reactions are punitively suppressed or reduced to the obedient target response does...
The DRL schedule is also similar to a fixed interval schedule, except that any responses exceeding the required contingency reset the interval. DRL schedules are sometimes used in controlling excessive social behaviors that need to be reduced in frequency but not eliminated altogether. Though of technical interest in the laboratory, the DRL schedule is rarely employed in the management of dog behavior.
The safety-relaxation theory suggests that dogs experience stimuli associated with relief from aversive stimulation as though they were positive reinforcers. These observations are relevant to traditional dog-training methodology. in addition to establishing various conditioned associations with rewards (e.g., food and ball play), praise represents a safety signal of some importance and usefulness. interestingly, within the context of behavioral training, praise appears to derive a significant portion of its associative strength and reward value from its being paired regularly with the pleasurable relief occurring immediately after the corrective event. Because praise consistently predicts the absence of aversive stimulation and is paired with emotional relief from aversive stimulation, it gradually becomes highly desirable in itself and may be treated as a kind of conditioned positive reinforcer. Following the application of aversive stimulation, it is vital that some positive...
An interesting conditioning phenomenon occurs when neutral stimuli are paired together prior to conditioning (Fig. 6.9). For example, if the sound of a clicker occurs just prior to the word cue Good over several trials, an associative connection between these signals will occur even though the arrangement is not followed by a US. Evidence for the effectiveness of preconditioned associations becomes apparent only after the CS Good undergoes some actual conditioning with the US (e.g., food). Once such conditioning
And their differential impact on the performance of learned behavior (Ferster and Skinner, 1957). In dog training, reinforcement is provided according to various plans and schemes depending on the specific requirements of the training objective. During the early stages of training, a new behavior is reinforced every time it occurs. The new behavior is acquired on a continuous schedule of reinforcement (CRF). Once a stable operant level is obtained, the behavior is usually brought under the control of an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. Intermittent schedules require a dog to emit a prerequisite number of responses (ratio schedule), emit at least one response within a predetermined period of time (interval schedule) before reinforcement is delivered, or emit the target behavior continuously over some period of time (duration schedule). All three schedules can be either fixed or variable. In combination, therefore, three basic schedules of fixed and variable reinforcement are...
A study of reactive hypertension in dogs provides some suggestive evidence linking the chronic inhibition of the freedom reflex with increased stress and irritability. Wilhelm and colleagues (1953) found that highly trained and conditioned dogs exhibit a much more extreme blood pressure response to trivial stimulation (entry of a stranger, strange noise in the kennel, and change in routine) than less-well-trained counterparts. The authors speculated along with Liddell that repetitive and monotonous inhibitory training and conditioning is itself stressful and neuroto-genic. In a study assessing the effects of stress occurring during guide-dog training, stress-prone and non-stress-prone guide dogs were evaluated (Vincent and Mitchell, 1996). The researchers found that stress-prone dogs tended to exhibit significantly higher blood pressure readings when compared with non-stress-prone dogs, suggesting that temperament factors play an important role in the physiological expression of...
The use of corporal punishment to control dog behavior is very problematical and should be avoided. Not only are such methods dangerous for inexperienced owners to employ, they are probably ineffective (certainly in the sense of lasting and generalized behavioral control) and are fraught with potentially serious side effects. Physical punishment of aggressive behavior can easily result in an escalation of aggression or produce a more severe and difficult problem to control. For example, although an intimidated dog may not dare to threaten or snap at the person applying such abusive treatment, other family members of less social rank or unsuspecting guests may become the victims of redirected attacks or attacks following momentary disinhibition. Further, excessive punishment may suppress vital threat displays, making future attacks more difficult to anticipate and avoid safely. In the long run, such misguided training efforts may produce a much more difficult and dangerous situation to...
An important aspect of dog training involves bringing learned behavior under the control of cues and commands or what learning theorists call discriminative stimuli. Essentially, stimulus control refers to a process whereby a learned response is rendered more probable in the presence of some arbitrary stimulus. For example, once a dog has learned that some instrumental response is regularly associated with a specific outcome, the response-outcome relationship can be readily associated with a discriminative stimulus (Sd). The Sd functions similarly to a CS in classical conditioning, serving to establish a correlation between its presence and the occurrence of an associated instrumental response and reinforcer (Rescorla, 1991). The Sd is a signal that both selects the desired behavior and announces the moment when its emission will most likely result in reinforcement that is, either producing a positive reinforcer or avoiding the occurrence of a negative one.
If you want to use the clicker during obedience training, you will want to introduce it slowly. Some dogs are noise sensitive to the click and may be startled. Since this signal is meant to be praise, take the time to introduce the click and gage your dog's reaction. If the click is too intense, try to muffle the sound by putting your clicker hand in a pair or two of socks. Watch that you don't click in close proximity to your dog's ear.
Generalization and discrimination processes play an active role in all training activities. For example, the process of developing a conditioned reinforcer can be adversely affected by unanticipated generalization effects. A dog that has been trained to respond to the word signal Good as a positive conditioned reinforcer will also respond to great many other word cues spoken in a similar tone of voice. It is important, therefore, to differentiate clearly the reward cue from other voice signals used in training. Usually, a higher-pitched tone of voice is used to sound the reward cue, whereas a lower, more assertive tone is used to sound the reprimand or negative conditioned reinforcer. An alternative is to choose a conditioned reinforcer that is highly distinct and unique (e.g., a clicker or whistle).
Punishment and other forms of aversive control (e.g., aversive counterconditioning and negative reinforcement) can be humane and effective behavioral tools in the hands of competent trainers, but noncontingent (after the event) punishment and excessive physical punishment or brutalization (e.g., beating, hanging, or kicking) have no legitimate place in the armamentarium of professional trainers. That such methods exist today and are employed in the name of dog training is a blemish on the profession. ance of effectiveness is probably due to the influence of aversive counterconditioning. In other words, the ostensible benefit of such treatment is not due to the remote suppression of the unwanted behavior, but rather such methods probably work by indirectly conditioning fear toward the object or location where punishment took place in the past. One of the most repugnant examples of noncontingent punishment in the dog-training literature illustrates this effect Although aversive...
Do not teach your dog obedience commands so you will have control over them. Obedience commands form a language through which you can communicate your expectations and teach him how to socialize in the two-legged world. These commands will also keep him safe and allow him to remain safe for society. Another common pitfall is about praise. Very often, owners confuse affection with praise. Overly emotive vocals and touching and or petting are affection but are not praise. While your dog has a need to understand that you like or love him, affection is not the proper reward for obedience training. Avoid becoming attached to the outcome of the training process and learn to enjoy it. Effective training means having high standards and lofty goals. However, if the goals are not immediately achieved, then you must avoid frustration with the process. Consistency, patience, and persistence are essential traits of a quality dog trainer.
Azrin NH and Holz WC (1966). Punishment. In WK Honig (Ed), Operant Behavior Areas of Research and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall. Azrin NH, Hutchinson RR, and Kake DF (1967). Attack, avoidance, and escape reactions to aver-sive shock. J Exp Anal Behav, 10 131-148. Benjamin CL (1985). Mother Knows Best The Natural Way to Train Your Dog. New York Howell Book House. Blanchard R and Honig WK (1976). Surprise value of food determines its effectiveness as a reinforcer. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Processes, 2 68-74. Hammond TS (1894). Practical Dog Training Training vs Breaking. New York Forest and Stream. Tortora DF (1982). Understanding Electronic Dog Training. Tucson, AZ Tri-Tronics. Tossutti H (1942). Companion Dog Training. New York Orange Judd.
Sensitization produces the opposite effect of habituation. The sensitization effect is produced by exposing dogs to an intense sample of the US sufficient to elicit a startle or surprise reaction. Subsequent exposures to the US at lower intensities (perhaps previously ignored) will produce a noticeable increase in UR magnitude. Another method for sensitizing dogs to a US of low salience is to pair it with a different US of stronger intensity. Such US-US pairings are very useful in dog training. For instance, the vocal reprimand, while possessing some surprise startle properties, is easily fatigued through repeated use but may be potentiated by being presented simultaneously (compound conditioning) with a startling US like the toss of a shaker can. Sensitization techniques are especially useful in training situations involving avoidance conditioning and aversive countercondi-tioning.
Or surprising event (a distraction sufficient to elicit an orienting response) is presented together with the extinguished CS. As a result of this arrangement, conditioned responding to the CS spontaneously reappears in spite of many previous extinction trials. Under natural conditions of dog training, these sorts of disinhibitory influences are impossible to avoid entirely, requiring instead that they be proofed against as part of the training process.
THE DISCUSSION in the preceding chapter was mainly limited to an exploration of the more or less involuntary mechanisms and processes mediating stimulus-response (S-R) learning. Behavioral change, however, often involves much more complicated and dynamic interactions between the animal and the environment than the S-R model can adequately handle. Opposed to the involuntary nature of reflexive behavior, a great deal of what a dog does is highly motivated, organized, and goal directed. These more complicated aspects of dog behavior cannot be reduced to a simple chain of S-R events.
Hopefully, in the future, puppy socialization and training courses will become a common feature of puppy rearing as common and routine as vaccinations are today in the prevention of communicable disease. Early behavioral training and proper socialization appear to inoculate immature dogs against many adult dog behavior problems such as hyperactivity, excessive fearfulness, aggression, separation anxiety, and general disobedience. Although hard scientific evidence is still lacking, many anecdotal reports and case histories strongly support the value of early training in the prevention of these serious problems. Unfortunately, however, many of the current rearing practices often neglect or incorrectly apply the needed training efforts.
DOG behavior is determined by many interdependent biological and experiential factors. Although dogs are biologically prepared to develop in specific ways and to exhibit a limited set of potential traits and behavior patterns, the expression of these tendencies is flexible and subject to the general laws of learning. Even this adaptive variability, though, is ultimately limited by biological The foregoing scenario is extreme and rarely observed outside the laboratory, but it does underscore the importance of early experience on the development of dog behavior. Although the vast majority of puppies are not exposed to such complete isolation, many do incur varying degrees of early social and environmental deprivation. Puppies bred under careless conditions where they are reared like livestock by irresponsible and ignorant breeders are topical cases in point. Such puppies are often exposed to the most appalling conditions and cruel treatment. When they come into homes, they are already...
Knowing your training options Choosing an obedience school Hiring a personal dog trainer Deciding on a dog camp No matter what decision you make, you need to keep in mind that there are enormous quality differences, not only in terms of training effectiveness, but also in how the dogs are treated. Dog training is a completely unregulated area, and anyone, yes, anyone, can proclaim himself a trainer. When you attempt to make a rational choice, remember that there are many ways to train a dog. Beware of anyone who says only their way is the right way. Successful dog training depends not so much on the how, but on the why. Dogs aren't a homogeneous commodity, and the approach to training has to take into account the dog's Personality Profile (see Chapter 5), as well as your own personality. Teaching skills aren't the same as training skills. To teach people how to train their dogs, an instructor needs good communication and people skills, as well as a thorough knowledge of dog training....
8 Obedience training at this stage is not intended to fix all of your problems. Obedience will be used to create patterns that will be adopted (self-applied) in various situations to create manners over time. So don't force the fix. Forcing will cause other problems to occur.
A device for delivering remote punishment that has considerable usefulness is the remote-activated electronic collar. Remote electronic stimulation provides a means for delivering a well-timed and measured aversive event. In many ways, it represents an ideal positive punisher, having many potential applications in dog training. In addition to intractable barking problems, dangerous habits such as chasing cars and bicyclists, various predatory behaviors, persistent recall problems, and refractory compulsive habits all are often responsive to training efforts utilizing an electronic collar. Tortora (1983) has advocated the use of electronic training in the management of certain forms of aggression. Ideally, the electronic collar should possess several operating features (1) a variable shock intensity adjustable from the transmitter and collar, (2) a warning and safety tone built into the collar, and (3) reliable operation and range. Little in the dog-behavior literature has been written...
Don't train your dog when you're irritable or tired. You want training to be a positive experience for your dog. If you ever get frustrated during training, stop and come back to it at another time. When you're frustrated, your communications consist of no, bad dog, how could you do this, and get out and stay out. You're unhappy and Buddy is unhappy because you're unhappy.
Don't do these activities prior to obedience training and distraction training. Natural instincts are so hardwired that distraction training is needed first so the dog learns to make choices rather than act purely on instinct. Once good choices are established, then we can go back and give instincts their outlets.
Attempting to understand how voluntary behavior is modified produces many interrelated theoretical and practical questions. Whereas behavioral scientists are primarily interested in developing general laws and principles governing learned behavior, trainers focus on how voluntary behavior is most efficiently modified and turned to practical purposes. Many lines of theoretical reasoning inform modern training theory. To appreciate these various contributions, a brief theoretical overview is provided below. This overview is not intended as a complete historical representation of the development of learning theory, but rather an effort is made to delineate some of the more significant historical issues and to summarize them with emphasis on their relevance for the dog behavior consultant and trainer.
Start obedience training shortly after chapter 8) begins after completing the initial obedience-training plan. Younger adolescents will have some difficulty with distractions. As your dog's ability to concentrate for longer periods develops, distractions will become easier to resist.
Success lie in the foundation you set during fundamental obedience training. Those ingredients are consistency in reinforcing patterns and commands, distraction-training distance commands, and simple respect for your relationship. Maturity on the dog's part, coupled with these other ingredients, is the final piece of the puzzle. Remember that you can't rush maturity.
With your right arm hanging naturally at your side, the back of the hand facing the dog, turn your hand so the palm faces your dog. Then bring your arm out and away from your body, no higher than your waist, keeping your elbow locked. The object is to train your dog to respond to the turning of your hand. In the teaching phase, the arm moves in front of your body so you can lure Buddy into a Sit with a treat
Another important source of evidence in favor of the primogenitor status of the wolf is the behavioral similarity between the two canids. Scott (1950) has compiled an ethogram of dog behavior derived from observations of semiferal dogs maintained in open-field enclosures and well-socialized counterparts maintained under laboratory conditions. He then compared these observations with field reports of wolf behavior. Of the 90 behavior patterns exhibited by dogs, all but 19 are also exhibited by wolves. Most of the behaviors not described at the time of Scott's ethogram have been subsequently reported by other observers (Mech, 1970 Fox, 1971). Scott's study demonstrates that the behavior patterns of dogs are very similar to those of wolves. Understanding dog behavior rightly begins with a study of wolf behavior. However, a long history of domestication behaviorally segregates dogs from wolves, and one must take care not to overly generalize between the two canids in terms of their...
Pulse the only thing that can neutralize an impulse is an impulse the other way (1890 1950 393). This is an important basic principle and credo for dog trainers and be-haviorists to keep foremost in mind when working with highly motivated behavior. Of course, James and Spinoza had humans in mind, but the same sort of behavioral flexibility exists in dogs. in addition to appetitive countercondi-tioning, aversive counterconditioning is commonly used in dog training. For example, a dog may develop an interest or appetite that is dangerous or unacceptable for one reason or another. Such appetites can be very persistent and resist ordinary methods of deterrence. Just as counterconditioning can be used to reduce aversive associations and avoidance, it can also be used to generate or increase aversive associations and avoidance when necessary. Appetitive interest and attraction to a forbidden or dangerous item can be effectively decreased by pairing the item with a sufficiently aversive or...
Lindsay, MA, is a dog behavior consultant and trainer who lives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he provides a variety of behavioral training and counseling services. In addition to his long career in working with companion dogs, he previously evaluated and trained highly skilled military working dogs as a member of the U.S. Army Biosensor Research Team (Superdog Program). Mr. Lindsay also conducts workshops and is the author of numerous publications on dog behavior and training. Handbook of applied dog behavior and training Steven R. Lindsay foreword by Victoria Lea Voith. 1st ed. p. cm.
Some stimuli unconditionally elicit an orienting response, whereas others develop the strength to do so only after conditioning. Commonly employed unconditioned orienting stimuli used in dog training include clapping, whistling, kissing sounds, clucking, yelling, and stomping. Note that many of these orienting stimuli involve the production of different kinds of sound. Audition is a particularly favorable sensory modality for attention training because it can be stimulated
Dogproblems.com is owned and operated by Adam Katz. Adam is a graduate of the University of California at Berkeley, where he received his Bachelor of Arts degree while also studying canine behavior under prominent Israeli dog trainer Alon Geva. He is also the author of the book, Secrets of a Professional Dog Trainer An Insider's Guide To The Most Jealously Guarded Dog Training Secrets In History as well as several dog training videos, audio tape lectures, dog training internet resource disks and several dog training information products. Be sure to subscribe to Adam's FREE Weekly dog training tips e-zine We now have over 7,000 subscribers Go to http www.dogproblems.com
We want this book to be a useful tool for you. And we don't want dog training to feel like a chore that you have to slog through step by step. So we've structured this book in such a way that you can jump in and out of the text as it interests you and applies to your situation. For instance, is your dog partially trained, but needs to learn a few things Then go directly to the chapters you need. Nor do we expect you to internalize every bit of information in this book. Throughout the text, we include reminders of key points and cross-references to more information about the topic at hand. Remember, dog training is fun It isn't a series of tests that you have to pass, unless you and your dog enter the world of competitive events.
We use the term traditional training to describe the most widely used training method for the last 100 years. The first comprehensive written record of traditional training is based on the principle that unacceptable behaviors result in unpleasant consequences and acceptable behaviors result in pleasant consequences. Konrad Most, a German service dog trainer, developed this method in the early 1900s he also wrote Training Dogs A Manual. (Dogwise Publishing has republished Training Dogs A Manual, and it's available at www.dogwise.com.) His method was introduced in this country in the early 1920s, when several of Most's students immigrated to the United States and became the teachers of future dog training instructors. If these four quadrants sound confusing to you, you aren't alone. And, if you think that negative punishment is a redundancy and positive punishment is an oxymoron, you're also not alone. Moreover, we have always considered the word punishment singularly inappropriate in...
Dog training begins as a meeting of minds yours and your dog's. Though the end goal may be to get your dog's body to behave in a specific way, training starts as a mind game. Your dog is learning all the time by observing the consequences of his actions and social interactions. He is always seeking out what he perceives as desirable and trying to avoid what he perceives as undesirable.
The simple fact is some of the solutions I outline in this book won't work for some people. Other owners, even those who are 100 percent successful in addressing behavior problems, will likely need professional help to teach their dog obedience around distractions and to work on socialization. Finally, some owners may experience more difficult behavioral challenges, such as aggression, separation anxiety, and so on. These types of problems, especially aggression, must be addressed by a qualified professional trainer. As I write this book in 2003, nowhere in the United States are dog obedience trainers tested or licensed. This is also true in all Canadian provinces. By dog obedience trainers, I mean those people who teach companion or pet dog obedience. (I am not talking about trainers who teach dogs to sniff bombs, work at search and rescue or with police dogs. Nor am I talking about service dog trainers.) To put it another way, anyone who wants to call themselves a pet dog trainer...
As a dog obedience instructor, I see many dog owners who are having problems with their dogs. Their dogs won't come when called, they drag their owners down the street when walked on leash, they jump up on company, they chew on furniture, and they urinate on the carpets. These owners are frustrated and confused by their dogs. Some are very angry. Even though the owners and dogs love each other, they do not understand each other. Both are unhappy. I have been teaching dog obedience for 28 years. I got started by taking my first dog, Shauna, an Irish Setter, to a dog obedience class. We weren't having any problems it just seemed like a fun thing to do. The obedience training allowed us to do a lot more things together. I could take her to my college classes because she would lie down and stay for 50 minutes. (She had to be very good because dogs weren't supposed to be in the college buildings.) She would ride quietly in the elevator. We could play Frisbee because she would come when...
There are rarely quick fixes for behavior problems because these are usually symptoms of more complicated underlying problems that need to be solved, most involving miscommunication between owner and dog. If you haven't read the previous chapters, you will need to read chapter 1 to understand why punishment won't work and chapter 4 to understand the effects of your dog's personality on the problems you are having. The training described in chapter 5 is an important tool in solving any problem because it builds a foundation of communication. Armed with basic training and understanding, you can attack the problem. However, the discussions of the behavior problems presented here are by necessity simplified. Additionally, there are dog behavior problems that could not be covered. If this chapter does not help you solve your problem, do not hesitate to consult a professional.
Growing up in a social atmosphere, Obedience training, Is obedience training necessary , No punishment, Rewards & Praise, Basic commands, Feeding time, Retraining, Clinker training, Adult dogs, Jumping, Loose leash training, Biting, Socialization prevents biting, Trust & Respect inhibits biting, Use of reprimands & biting, barking, Aggression, How do I teach my dog not to dig Fear, Roaming, Now Some tricks, Training large dogs, Small breeds, Easy to train breeds, A few definitions, FAQ's
Obedience classes work best when you work every day with your Dachshund at home. Consider it homework. In fact, most obedience instructors really will give you homework assignments. When your teacher tells you to practice twice a day for 10 to 20 minutes, she means it. Otherwise, you'll find that obedience classes have little if any effect on your Dachshund's behavior. Beyond the essential element of a positive and fun approach, obedience training is all about two key concepts consistency and persistency.
12 Obedience training is also essential for the overall welfare of your dog. It can help prevent potential tragedies from occurring. If your dog were to somehow escape from his leash and or collar and dart out into the street with oncoming traffic, you can control him just by using verbal commands. You can ask him to stop, sit, or stay until you have reached him and secured him sufficiently.
Depending on your situation, you have to decide if you want to train your dog to eliminate outside or inside your home. I highly recommend you to train your dog to go outside if you have access to a backyard, a park or the street. If you live in a high-rise or you are a disabled person and it's almost impossible for you to get outside quickly, you should train your dog to eliminate in a specific place inside your house or apartment. Owners of a toy breed who live in a region where it gets cold in the winter may also decide to train their dog to go inside.
The truth is you still can have a dog who at least tolerates grooming. The trick is to train your dog to get him used to what you normally do when grooming him, such as putting him on the table or gently handling his mouth or feet. In this chapter, I give you great pointers on how to show your dog that the basics of grooming are not such a bad experience after all.
When you are using food to train your dog, it is helpful to teach your dog that he should look at you and pay attention to you, not the food. Sit your dog in front of you, as in previous eye contact exercises. Have a piece of food in each hand, closed in a fist. Hold your fists at your sides. Your dog should know you have food in your hands. Give him a watch command. More than likely, he will stare at your hands and nudge at them with his nose. Ignore this. Keep giving him the watch command, softly calling his name or making funny noises. Hopefully, he will eventually glance at your face. When he does, give him one of the pieces of food in your hands. Repeat until he instantly looks at you and away from the food when he hears his name.
Training your dog is a means of communicating with him. Training makes your dog happier since it takes care of his basic instinct to follow a leader. Training in obedience also makes his life safer in the environs of human inhabitation. Above all when you train your dog
A good trainer can help you train your dog the right way. He is necessary not only to help your dog become a well trained dog but also to help you become a good owner. Choose one who uses humane training techniques that encourage appropriate behavior through such positive reinforcement as food, attention, play, or praise. Training techniques should never involve yelling, choking, shaking the scruff, tugging on the leash, alpha rolling (forcing the dog onto his back), or other actions that frighten or inflict pain.
For those of you who live in a high-rise or are disabled, you just have to follow the seven-step technique and bring your puppy to his toilet stop. Again, you don't need to first paper train your dog in this situation. The paper on the floor in your puppy's domain is only a cleaning up tool , not the first step to indoor training.
You are doing your Lab a great big favor by training him. Training stimulates his brain and awakens his intelligence. You train your dog because he deserves it. He is a beautiful animal who must spend his life beside you amidst a loving family. He must definitely not be relegated to the dark recesses of a garage or tied to a stake in the yard. Are these not reasons enough for a responsible dog owner to train his pet dog
Train your dog to walk without pulling, and then never allow him to pull again when you are walking him. It is not good for your dog to be dragging you down the street, gasping and wheezing for air. And it is not good for your arm You will have to be stubborn because it is not natural for an excited dog to walk at a slow enough pace to match yours. Make sure that anyone who walks him insists on him not pulling consistency is important if walking without pulling is going to become a habit. If you walk your dog in an open area, you may want to try walking him on a retractable leash. It will give him a little more freedom, and he won't pull as much.
Whenever I am out in public and speak with people, whether it's at a social gathering or just meeting someone, I often hear the question What do you do for a living When I tell people my profession, it almost always sparks curiosity and genuine interest. Of course, as any dog trainer will tell you, it also stimulates about a trillion questions which is why I sometimes cringe when I know the what do you do question is about to be asked. However, most of the time it is fun to talk about and a good topic of conversation.
For many dog owners, the name Pavlov no doubt rings a bell. Ivan Pavlov was not a dog trainer. In fact, his main interest was digestion. From 1891 through 1900, Pavlov studied the digestive process in dogs, particularly salivation and its role in assisting digestion. As he conducted his studies, Pavlov realized that without salivation, the stomach didn't receive the message to start digesting food. Pavlov then attempted to see if he could start salivation without the stimulus of food. To do this, he rang a bell whenever he gave the dogs something to eat. Eventually, he stopped giving them the food and just rang the bell. When he did, his dogs would begin to salivate even though there was no food present. Pavlov published these results in 1903, calling the response a conditioned reflex, and distinguishing it from an innate or involuntary reflex such as pulling one's hand away from a hot stove.
Although I don't remember where I read it, I remember another dog trainer making a very good point about the general public owning dogs trained to attack. He (or she) said that since most people cannot reliably make their dogs sit and stay, the idea of such people owning a dog trained to attack is frightening. If you feel that your home needs more protection, buy a burglar alarm. It is more reliable, and it won't attack the wrong person.
Exercise is important this breed is a working dog bred to carry packs or pull sleds. A long, brisk walk morning and evening and a play session in between is the least exercise this dog can tolerate. A Malamute would be thrilled to have an owner who does skijoring, sled dog training, carting, hiking, or backpacking. 120 lbs Longevity 12 to 14 years Exercise Active dog Training Easy hard to focus Grooming Easy
But it isn't too hard, either. The first thing you have to realize is that your Dachshund doesn't speak English. Okay, sure, you know that. But have you really considered what it means It means that your Dachshund isn't being defiant the first time you say Sit and she just stares at you with a look that says, What planet are you from She just doesn't know what you're talking about. Her mother didn't tell her to Sit. How is she supposed to understand
My young Lab seems to have become an absolute brat all of a sudden What could be the reason And how do I handle such
You will have to re-assert your position as the undisputed leader to whom he just has to listen and unquestioningly obey. So step up his obedience-training schedule and spice it up with plenty of fun tricks. Keep him busy. This is the only way to keep him out of mischief.
Pack mentality is the driving force behind much of dog behavior. Dogs and wolves are members of the same biological family, and we can understand the way a dog thinks by examining the way wolves act in the wild. Wolves live in packs extended family groups. Each wolf pack lives in its own specific territory, which is fiercely defended against other wolves. Male wolves mark the boundaries of the pack's territory by urinating on trees and other upright objects.
Reading dog behaviors Needless to say, aggressive dogs are downright scary, and you should never handle them at all. If you own one of these dogs, I suggest that you seek help from a dog behaviorist, a veterinarian, or other dog professional when it comes to working with an aggressive dog.
Beyond Basic Dog Training is a bible for those interested in the Compulsive Retrieve and precision obedience training, especially for medium to large dogs. Written by a world-famous trainer Competitive Obedience Training for the Small Dog is especially recommended for teaching the Compulsive Retrieve and other obedience exercises to toy-sized dogs. A great book
Many dog trainers believe that you must dominate your dog in order to successfully live with him. Obedience training classes ring with the cry, You must dominate your dog and You must be the pack leader, the alpha figure, a sentiment echoed in many dog training books. It is also claimed that if you don't dominate your dog, he will try to dominate you. Your dog is the enemy obedience class is often the battleground. Emphasis on dominance causes many problems in dog-human relationships. Domination can result in avoidance, fear, and suppression of a dog's initiative. It is possible to dominate a dog by suppressing undesirable behaviors with force while still not communicating to the dog what you want. Mutual communication is cut off when an owner fears that his dog is always trying to dominate him, and a dog's initiative to communicate is suppressed. Worst of all, establishing dominance is often used as an excuse for using unnecessary force in dog training.
The Keeshond Club of America recommends basic obedience training for all dogs. This breed is bright and easy to train and is not prone to trouble as long as training begins early and the lessons are structured but fun. Used as a watchdog in the past, the breed retains an alarm-dog quality, barking when trespassers approach. The breed is not aggressive and, when socialized as a puppy, is very friendly.
You can read every book on the planet about Dachshunds, dog behavior, and training, but until you get to know the personality of your Dachshund, you'll have only half the story. Putting any individual Dachshund in any individual home will result in a unique and special situation. The following sections give you some common Dachshund desires and behaviors and then explain how differences can occur.
Beyond Basic Dog Training includes all the details for precision heeling, such as attentiveness, footwork, forging ahead, lagging behind, and crowding against you. This book is a bible for those interested in obedience competition, especially with medium to large dogs. Competitive Obedience Training for the Small Dog also includes precision heeling for obedience competition, but is geared toward the special needs of wee doggies. A fabulous book
A dog, and especially a puppy, may try your patience time and again. You can't lose your temper that is never effective, and it won't help your dog learn. Instead, you'll have to learn to control your emotions when problems happen and learn how to train your dog effectively.
The hyperactive dog is different from both of these. Hyperactivity is a neurological disorder. These dogs cannot slow down. They tend to learn poorly due to an inability to pay attention for any length of time. They often have multiple behavior problems. Training and exercise do not help much with these dogs. As with hyperactive children, they can be treated with drugs. The drugs used are not tranquilizers. Some veterinarians do not have much experience with this problem. If you suspect your dog is hyperactive, you will probably need the help of someone specializing in dog behavior
When you are home, continue to restrict your dog's freedom and supervise him closely to prevent accidents. Pick up any soiled newspapers as soon as you get home, and do not put down fresh ones until you are ready to leave the next morning. The papers are only being used to protect your floor, not to paper-train your dog. Don't let your dog use them when you are home. If your dog tries to relieve himself where he is kept during the day while you are at home, block off that room or area.
Some dog trainers also call themselves canine behavioral consultants. These trainers may not have advanced degrees in animal 1 For a list of trainers who specialize in behavior problems, check out the Association of Pet Dog Trainers's site at www.apdt.com and click on Dog Trainer Search.
Lynda Mulczynski, a Chart Polski breeder, says, Obedience training should be an absolute requirement for all Chart Polski and their owners. She continues by positive, fun, and interesting. Some individual dogs are very domhand over an unsuspecting owner, creating an unhappy situation in _l the home. Socialization is also very important, as this is a highly protective breed that will courageously protect home and family.
Grooming goes much more easily when your dog is willing to help you. Your dog doesn't necessarily have to compete in dog shows or attend obedience-training classes to know a few key cues that can make your job of grooming him that much easier. Regardless of whether your dog is capable of jumping onto the table or whether stature, age, or infirmity prohibit her from doing so, you can find a way to train your dog to get up on the table and stay there. All you need to do is choose a time when your dog is more attentive and maybe a little hungry, have plenty of treats on hand, and follow these steps
If you are not your dog's leader, you will not be respected. A dog who doesn't respect her owner can show the attitude in many different ways she might growl when you go to move her off the sofa or bed or when she has a toy or bone. She might snap at you when you try to groom her, or she may even try to mount you. Disrespect may also show up in a refusal to do obedience training or even a refusal to play with you. Train your dog. Enroll in a dog training class, either a kindergarten class for puppies or a basic obedience class for older puppies and young adult dogs. Give your dog permission to do things. If she's reaching to pick up her toy, tell her as she picks it up, Good girl to get your toy She was going to do it anyway, so give her permission to do it and praise her for it. Think of it as free dog training
You may consider yourself a pro with dog training, feeding, and health, but even the best dog expert can be brought to tears from a special group of canines puppies. These tornadoes in adorable, sweet, kissable, fuzzy little packages can take a happy, clean home and turn it into a house of horrors to rival the best carnival's. From their tiny little knives of teeth to their complete lack of comprehension of the word No, puppies are trouble. Yet one look into that open, innocent little face and those big, loving eyes that consider you a god and you're hooked. It's an addiction, but there's really no cure besides a good education in all things puppy-related. So put on that thinking cap, because you'll need it when they get you in their furry clutches. and then breathe on you with that puppy breath.
Here's an extra site to check out www.clickertraining.com. This site belongs to Karen Pryor, a renowned author and lecturer. She has written many books, including Don't Shoot the Dog, which is considered by some to be one of the best books on behavior ever written. Karen Pryor is arguably the greatest clicker training expert in the world, and her site contains a wealth of information about behavior, clicker training and where to find clicker trainers. Check it out.
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Crate Training 101
Everything you need to know about crate training your dog or puppy, from what type and size of crate you should buy to how to set yourself up for success!