In effect, the avoidance signal functions in an identical manner to that of the discriminative stimulus (Sd) during positive instrumental learning. The Sd announces a moment where a reward is forthcoming, given that the dog emits the selected behavior in a timely manner. Dogs learn over several trials to expect a reward when they respond appropriately. When this expectation is confirmed by reinforcement, the linkage between the Sd and the behavior is strengthened or stamped in and extinguished or stamped out when the expectation is disconfirmed by the omission of reinforcement. For example, if a dog was trained to sit under two different signals and then exposed to a situation in which one of the signals is followed by the omission of reinforcement while the other continues to be associated with its presentation, the dog will subsequently learn to sit under the signal confirmed by reinforcement but not sit under the signal predicting the omission of reinforcement. The instrumental...
The safety-relaxation theory suggests that dogs experience stimuli associated with relief from aversive stimulation as though they were positive reinforcers. These observations are relevant to traditional dog-training methodology. in addition to establishing various conditioned associations with rewards (e.g., food and ball play), praise represents a safety signal of some importance and usefulness. interestingly, within the context of behavioral training, praise appears to derive a significant portion of its associative strength and reward value from its being paired regularly with the pleasurable relief occurring immediately after the corrective event. Because praise consistently predicts the absence of aversive stimulation and is paired with emotional relief from aversive stimulation, it gradually becomes highly desirable in itself and may be treated as a kind of conditioned positive reinforcer. A leading proponent of the safety-relaxation theory of avoidance learning is M. Ray...
Reciprocal inhibition neural systems refers to the tendency of elicited muscle actions to inhibit the actions of an opposite type. The elicitation of muscle reflexes involves three possible actions flexion, extension, or a tonic combination of the two. Stimulating a group of muscles to flex causes the simultaneous inhibition of opposing extensor muscles. The concept of reciprocal inhibition was later adopted by Wolpe (1958) to describe the effect of counterconditioning and the process of systematic desensitization. Wolpe argued that relaxation appetite and anxiety fear are mutually exclusive affects that regulate each other through a mechanism of reciprocal in-hibition that is dogs cannot simultaneously feel anxious while relaxed or fearful while eating. The third characteristic of reciprocal inhibition (flexor extensor tonic equilibrium) is analogous to situations in which opposing emotional alternatives are held in a stasis of conflict between the available options.
Tance, possess enough self-control not to run away. Consequently, to attenuate fearful behavior properly, one must address both instrumental fearful responses as well as the underlying emotional concomitants. From the perspective of some forms of behavior therapy, fear is best reduced by simply strengthening instrumental behavior incompatible with fear while ignoring or blocking (response prevention) fearful behavior when it happens to occur. Sometimes, however, the underlying fear is so strong and pervasive that it must first be addressed and modified through direct means, including respondent counterconditioning, relaxation training, exercise, or medications. As the underlying fearful arousal is diminished, the instrumental behavioral expressions of it will spontaneously improve, thus making it easier to shape more confident behavior. iting stronger appetitive arousal or relaxation in the presence of the aversive event is referred to as counterconditioning. Wolpe states the...
Clark H, Rowbury T, Baer A, and Baer D (1973). Time-out as a punishing stimulus in continuous and intermittent schedules. J Appl Behav Anal, 6 443-455. Denny MR (1971). Relaxation theory and experi Denny MR (1976). Post-aversive relief and relaxation and their implications for behavior therapy. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 7 315-321.
I use a combination of ways to exercise my dogs. We are fortunate to have enough property for two 20-minute off-leash walks a day. I often invite other dogs to join us to increase the play. Once a week we try to go for a 45-minute hike in the woods. We drive to local state forests for these hikes. My husband often jogs with them once or twice a week for a couple miles. All of this does as much for our mental relaxation as for our dogs. You wouldn't want to be around me if I miss my daily dog walk. Agility training provides some exercise. A sewage treatment plant near us has lovely open fields with a creek for cooling off. Sometimes there is a bit of an odor, but the dogs don't mind. Now that's a creative solution to an exercise problem
Often the first awareness I have of being in a particular mood is when it is reflected in my dog. Her behavior reflects my tension or my relaxation, my anxiety or my peacefulness, my depression or my happiness. When I am in a bad mood, I often find her hiding in her crate, avoiding me. Seeing this makes me feel terrible. I can then put things in perspective and relax, much to the relief of the rest of my family. My dog, acting as a mirror, has helped me to see myself.
Relaxation Audio Sounds Babbling Brook
This is an audio all about guiding you to relaxation. This is a Relaxation Audio Sounds with sounds from the Babbling Brooks.